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P06883

- GLUC_RAT

UniProt

P06883 - GLUC_RAT

Protein

Glucagon

Gene

Gcg

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
  1. Functioni

    Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.1 Publication
    GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin secretion. Increases islet mass through stimulation of islet neogenesis and pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Inhibits beta cell apoptosis.1 Publication
    GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability.1 Publication
    Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake.1 Publication
    Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and the gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sitei52 – 532Cleavage; by PCSK2By similarity
    Sitei83 – 842Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2By similarity
    Sitei91 – 922Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
    Sitei97 – 982Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
    Sitei130 – 1312Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
    Sitei145 – 1462Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. glucagon receptor binding Source: RGD
    2. hormone activity Source: RGD

    GO - Biological processi

    1. adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: RGD
    2. negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: RefGenome
    3. negative regulation of appetite Source: RGD
    4. positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus Source: RefGenome
    5. protein kinase A signaling Source: RefGenome
    6. protein metabolic process Source: RGD
    7. regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process Source: RGD
    8. regulation of lipid metabolic process Source: RGD
    9. response to starvation Source: RefGenome

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hormone

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Glucagon
    Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
    Oxyntomodulin
    Short name:
    OXM
    Short name:
    OXY
    Glucagon-like peptide 1
    Short name:
    GLP-1
    Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
    Short name:
    GLP-1(7-37)
    Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
    Short name:
    GLP-1(7-36)
    Glucagon-like peptide 2
    Short name:
    GLP-2
    Gene namesi
    Name:Gcg
    OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
    Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
    ProteomesiUP000002494: Unplaced

    Organism-specific databases

    RGDi2668. Gcg.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. extracellular region Source: Reactome
    2. extracellular space Source: RGD

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Secreted

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 2020Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei21 – 8969GlicentinBy similarityPRO_0000011303Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei21 – 5030Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityPRO_0000011304Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei53 – 8937OxyntomodulinPRO_0000011305Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei53 – 8129GlucagonBy similarityPRO_0000011306Add
    BLAST
    Propeptidei84 – 896By similarityPRO_0000011307
    Peptidei92 – 12837Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityPRO_0000011308Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei98 – 12831Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)By similarityPRO_0000011309Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei98 – 12730Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)By similarityPRO_0000011310Add
    BLAST
    Propeptidei131 – 14515By similarityPRO_0000011311Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei146 – 17833Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityPRO_0000011312Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei127 – 1271Arginine amideBy similarity

    Post-translational modificationi

    Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas.1 Publication

    Keywords - PTMi

    Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiP06883.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP06883.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract.1 Publication

    Inductioni

    Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion.

    Gene expression databases

    GenevestigatoriP06883.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000007356.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliP06883.
    SMRiP06883. Positions 53-81, 98-127.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG42743.
    HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
    HOVERGENiHBG003010.
    InParanoidiP06883.
    PhylomeDBiP06883.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon-like.
    IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11418. PTHR11418. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
    SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    P06883-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MKTVYIVAGL FVMLVQGSWQ HAPQDTEENA RSFPASQTEP LEDPDQINED    50
    KRHSQGTFTS DYSKYLDSRR AQDFVQWLMN TKRNRNNIAK RHDEFERHAE 100
    GTFTSDVSSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVKGRGRR DFPEEVAIAE ELGRRHADGS 150
    FSDEMNTILD NLATRDFINW LIQTKITDKK 180
    Length:180
    Mass (Da):20,846
    Last modified:January 1, 1988 - v1
    Checksum:i76931409D03C7978
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    K02813
    , K02809, K02810, K02811, K02812 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA41235.1.
    PIRiA22655. GCRT.
    UniGeneiRn.54383.

    Genome annotation databases

    UCSCiRGD:2668. rat.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    K02813
    , K02809 , K02810 , K02811 , K02812 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA41235.1 .
    PIRi A22655. GCRT.
    UniGenei Rn.54383.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali P06883.
    SMRi P06883. Positions 53-81, 98-127.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi 10116.ENSRNOP00000007356.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P06883.

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEi P06883.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    UCSCi RGD:2668. rat.

    Organism-specific databases

    RGDi 2668. Gcg.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG42743.
    HOGENOMi HOG000231876.
    HOVERGENi HBG003010.
    InParanoidi P06883.
    PhylomeDBi P06883.

    Miscellaneous databases

    NextBioi 13948569.
    PROi P06883.

    Gene expression databases

    Genevestigatori P06883.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR015550. Glucagon-like.
    IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR11418. PTHR11418. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00275. GLUCAGON.
    SMARTi SM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
    [Graphical view ]
    PROSITEi PS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Glucagon gene sequence. Four of six exons encode separate functional domains of rat pre-proglucagon."
      Heinrich G., Gros P., Habener J.F.
      J. Biol. Chem. 259:14082-14087(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    2. "Pre-proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid: nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of the rat pancreatic complementary deoxyribonucleic acid."
      Heinrich G., Gros P., Lund P.K., Bentley R.C., Habener J.F.
      Endocrinology 115:2176-2181(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    3. "Preproglucagon gene expression in pancreas and intestine diversifies at the level of post-translational processing."
      Mojsov S., Heinrich G., Wilson I.B., Ravazzola M., Orci L., Habener J.F.
      J. Biol. Chem. 261:11880-11889(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    4. Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 53-89.
    5. Cited for: FUNCTION OF OXYNTOMODULIN.
    6. "Role of prohormone convertases in the tissue-specific processing of proglucagon."
      Dhanvantari S., Seidah N.G., Brubaker P.L.
      Mol. Endocrinol. 10:342-355(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING BY PCSK1 AND PCSK2.
    7. "Both amidated and nonamidated forms of glucagon-like peptide I are synthesized in the rat intestine and the pancreas."
      Mojsov S., Kopczynski M.G., Habener J.F.
      J. Biol. Chem. 265:8001-8008(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    8. "Direct and indirect mechanisms regulating secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2."
      Brubaker P.L., Anini Y.
      Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 81:1005-1012(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.
    9. "Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis."
      Drucker D.J.
      Mol. Endocrinol. 17:161-171(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.
    10. "Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism."
      Jiang G., Zhang B.B.
      Am. J. Physiol. 284:E671-E678(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: REVIEW.
    11. Cited for: REVIEW.
    12. Cited for: REVIEW.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGLUC_RAT
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P06883
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 1, 1988
    Last sequence update: January 1, 1988
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 115 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3