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Protein

Chromogranin-A

Gene

CHGA

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Pancreastatin: Strongly inhibits glucose induced insulin release from the pancreas.1 Publication
Chromostatin: Completely inhibits catecholamine release from chromaffin cells.1 Publication
Chromacin: Has antibacterial activity against M.luteus. Not active against E.coli.1 Publication
Catestatin: Inhibits catecholamine release from chromaffin cells and noradrenergic neurons by acting as a non-competitive nicotinic cholinergic antagonist (PubMed:9294131 and PubMed:9786174). Displays antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria M.luteus and B.megaterium, and Gram-negative bacteria E.coli, and antifungal activity against a variety of filamentous fungi including A.fumigatus, N.hematococca, F.culmorum, F.oxyporum, T. mentagrophytes and several forms of Candida: C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.glabrata and C.neoform (PubMed:15723172). Can induce mast cell migration, degranulation and production of cytokines and chemokines (By similarity).By similarity3 Publications
Vasostatin-1: Has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria M.luteus, B.megaterium. Not active against Gram-positive bacteria B.cereus, B.subtilis, S.pyogenes, M.fortuitum, S.aureus and L.monocytogenes and against Gram-negative bacteria E.coli, E.cloacae, S.typhimurium, K.pneumoniae and P.aeruginosa. Possesses antifungal activity against N.crassa, A.fumigatus, A.brassicicola, N.hematococca, F.culmorum and F.oxyporum and against the yeast S.cerevisiae and C.albicans. Inactive against A.benhamiae.1 Publication
Chromofungin: Has antifungal activity against N.crassa, A.fumigatus, A.brassicicola, N.hematococca, F.culmorum, F.oxyporum, A.benhamiae, C.neoformans, as well as against yeasts C.albicans, and C.tropicalis. Seems to be inactive against C.glabrata. Interacts with the fungal cell wall, crosses the plasma membrane and accumulates in fungal cells where it inhibits calcineurin activity.1 Publication
Serpinin: Regulates granule biogenesis in endocrine cells by up-regulating the transcription of protease nexin 1 (SERPINE2) via a cAMP-PKA-SP1 pathway. This leads to inhibition of granule protein degradation in the Golgi complex which in turn promotes granule formation (PubMed:21436258).1 Publication

GO - Biological processi

  • defense response to fungus Source: UniProtKB
  • defense response to Gram-negative bacterium Source: UniProtKB
  • defense response to Gram-positive bacterium Source: UniProtKB
  • innate immune response Source: UniProtKB
  • killing of cells of other organism Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • mast cell activation Source: UniProtKB
  • mast cell chemotaxis Source: UniProtKB
  • mast cell cytokine production Source: UniProtKB
  • mast cell degranulation Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of angiogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of catecholamine secretion Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of hormone secretion Source: UniProtKB
  • negative regulation of insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of dense core granule biogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  • regulation of cell adhesion Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Fungicide

Keywords - Ligandi

Calcium

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Chromogranin-A2 Publications
Short name:
CgA
Alternative name(s):
Pituitary secretory protein I1 Publication
Short name:
SP-I
Cleaved into the following 11 chains:
Vasostatin-11 Publication
Chromofungin1 Publication
Chromostatin1 Publication
Chromacin1 Publication
Pancreastatin1 Publication
WE-14By similarity
Catestatin1 Publication
GE-251 Publication
Serpinin1 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:CHGA
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

Serpinin :

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
  • mast cell granule Source: GOC
  • secretory granule Source: UniProtKB
  • transport vesicle membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasmic vesicle, Membrane, Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 184 PublicationsAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000000539819 – 449Chromogranin-AAdd BLAST431
PeptideiPRO_000000539919 – 94Vasostatin-11 PublicationAdd BLAST76
PeptideiPRO_000043258765 – 88Chromofungin1 PublicationAdd BLAST24
PeptideiPRO_0000005400142 – 161Chromostatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST20
PeptideiPRO_0000005401191 – 212Chromacin1 PublicationAdd BLAST22
PeptideiPRO_0000005402266 – 312Pancreastatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST47
PeptideiPRO_0000005403334 – 347WE-14By similarityAdd BLAST14
PeptideiPRO_0000005404362 – 382Catestatin1 PublicationAdd BLAST21
PeptideiPRO_0000432673385 – 409GE-251 PublicationAdd BLAST25
PeptideiPRO_0000432674421 – 449Serpinin-RRGBy similarityAdd BLAST29
PeptideiPRO_0000432675421 – 446Serpinin1 PublicationAdd BLAST26
PeptideiPRO_0000432676424 – 446p-Glu serpinin precursorBy similarityAdd BLAST23

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi35 ↔ 561 Publication
Modified residuei99Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei142Phosphoserine1 Publication1
GlycosylationiCAR_000114185O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
Modified residuei191Phosphotyrosine1 Publication1
Modified residuei200PhosphoserineBy similarity1
GlycosylationiCAR_000203204O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
Modified residuei215PhosphoserineBy similarity1
GlycosylationiCAR_000115249O-linked (GalNAc...)1 Publication1
Modified residuei295PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei312Glycine amideCurated1
Modified residuei315Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei325PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei363PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei364Methionine sulfoxide1 Publication1
Modified residuei390Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei394Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei416PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei424Pyrrolidone carboxylic acidBy similarity1
Modified residuei430PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

In secretory granules, is attacked at both N- and C-terminal sides by proteolytic enzymes generating numerous peptides of various activities. Proteolytic processing can gives rise to additional longer forms of catestatin peptides which display a less potent catecholamine release-inhibitory activity (PubMed:10781584).1 Publication2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Oxidation, Phosphoprotein, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP05059.
PeptideAtlasiP05059.
PRIDEiP05059.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP05059.
UniCarbKBiP05059.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highest concentration of GE-25 found in adrenal medulla with lower levels present in the pituitary, the intestinal mucosa and the pancreas. Also found in the brain.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000009836.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with SCG3.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

MINTiMINT-1214849.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000012973.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1449
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Turni369 – 374Combined sources6
Beta strandi375 – 377Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1CFKmodel-A359-389[»]
1N2YNMR-A368-380[»]
DisProtiDP00118.
ProteinModelPortaliP05059.
SMRiP05059.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP05059.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YGBX. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000111808.
HOVERGENiHBG001272.
InParanoidiP05059.
KOiK19990.
TreeFamiTF336596.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001819. Chromogranin_AB.
IPR018054. Chromogranin_CS.
IPR001990. Granin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10583. PTHR10583. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01271. Granin. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00659. CHROMOGRANIN.
PROSITEiPS00422. GRANINS_1. 1 hit.
PS00423. GRANINS_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P05059-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRSAAVLALL LCAGQVIALP VNSPMNKGDT EVMKCIVEVI SDTLSKPSPM
60 70 80 90 100
PVSKECFETL RGDERILSIL RHQNLLKELQ DLALQGAKER THQQKKHSSY
110 120 130 140 150
EDELSEVLEK PNDQAEPKEV TEEVSSKDAA EKRDDFKEVE KSDEDSDGDR
160 170 180 190 200
PQASPGLGPG PKVEEDNQAP GEEEEAPSNA HPLASLPSPK YPGPQAKEDS
210 220 230 240 250
EGPSQGPASR EKGLSAEQGR QTEREEEEEK WEEAEAREKA VPEEESPPTA
260 270 280 290 300
AFKPPPSLGN KETQRAAPGW PEDGAGKMGA EEAKPPEGKG EWAHSRQEEE
310 320 330 340 350
EMARAPQVLF RGGKSGEPEQ EEQLSKEWED AKRWSKMDQL AKELTAEKRL
360 370 380 390 400
EGEEEEEEDP DRSMRLSFRA RGYGFRGPGL QLRRGWRPNS REDSVEAGLP
410 420 430 440
LQVRGYPEEK KEEEGSANRR PEDQELESLS AIEAELEKVA HQLEELRRG
Length:449
Mass (Da):50,015
Last modified:November 1, 1988 - v1
Checksum:iF304EDC587AA70A3
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti112N → T in AAA30765 (PubMed:3474638).Curated1
Sequence conflicti136F → S in CAA27636 (PubMed:3755681).Curated1
Sequence conflicti136F → S in AAI05516 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti154 – 155SP → PQ in CAA27841 (PubMed:3018587).Curated2
Sequence conflicti159P → R in CAA27841 (PubMed:3018587).Curated1
Sequence conflicti191Y → H in AAB21297 (PubMed:1779968).Curated1
Sequence conflicti254P → A in AAB21297 (PubMed:1779968).Curated1
Sequence conflicti293A → S in AAC48700 (PubMed:9074643).Curated1
Sequence conflicti311R → H in CAA27636 (PubMed:3755681).Curated1
Sequence conflicti311R → H in AAI05516 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti311R → H AA sequence (PubMed:1710890).Curated1
Sequence conflicti319E → K in CAA27636 (PubMed:3755681).Curated1
Sequence conflicti319E → K in AAI05516 (Ref. 6) Curated1
Sequence conflicti319E → K AA sequence (PubMed:1710890).Curated1
Sequence conflicti379G → R in AAA30765 (PubMed:3474638).Curated1
Sequence conflicti391R → Q in CAA27636 (PubMed:3755681).Curated1
Sequence conflicti391R → Q in AAI05516 (Ref. 6) Curated1

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 8584.9 Da from positions 19 - 94. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3827 Da from positions 350 - 382. Determined by MALDI. From adrenal medullary chromaffin granules.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3832 Da from positions 350 - 382. Determined by MALDI. From splenic nerve large dense core granules.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3844 Da from positions 350 - 382. Determined by MALDI. From adrenal medullary chromaffin granules. With methionine sulfoxide at Met-364.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3843 Da from positions 350 - 382. Determined by MALDI. From splenic nerve large dense core granules. With methionine sulfoxide at Met-364.1 Publication
Molecular mass is 3718 Da from positions 351 - 382. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2300 Da from positions 361 - 380. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2426 Da from positions 362 - 382. Determined by MALDI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S79270
, S79256, S79258, S79260, S79262, S79264, S79266, S79268 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB21297.1.
X04012 mRNA. Translation: CAA27636.1.
X04298 mRNA. Translation: CAA27841.1.
M16971 mRNA. Translation: AAA30765.1.
U73523 mRNA. Translation: AAC48700.1.
BC105515 mRNA. Translation: AAI05516.1.
PIRiA41520.
RefSeqiNP_851348.1. NM_181005.2.
UniGeneiBt.49630.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi281070.
KEGGibta:281070.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
S79270
, S79256, S79258, S79260, S79262, S79264, S79266, S79268 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB21297.1.
X04012 mRNA. Translation: CAA27636.1.
X04298 mRNA. Translation: CAA27841.1.
M16971 mRNA. Translation: AAA30765.1.
U73523 mRNA. Translation: AAC48700.1.
BC105515 mRNA. Translation: AAI05516.1.
PIRiA41520.
RefSeqiNP_851348.1. NM_181005.2.
UniGeneiBt.49630.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1CFKmodel-A359-389[»]
1N2YNMR-A368-380[»]
DisProtiDP00118.
ProteinModelPortaliP05059.
SMRiP05059.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

MINTiMINT-1214849.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000012973.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP05059.
UniCarbKBiP05059.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP05059.
PeptideAtlasiP05059.
PRIDEiP05059.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi281070.
KEGGibta:281070.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi1113.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410II3Z. Eukaryota.
ENOG410YGBX. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000111808.
HOVERGENiHBG001272.
InParanoidiP05059.
KOiK19990.
TreeFamiTF336596.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP05059.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSBTAG00000009836.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001819. Chromogranin_AB.
IPR018054. Chromogranin_CS.
IPR001990. Granin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10583. PTHR10583. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01271. Granin. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00659. CHROMOGRANIN.
PROSITEiPS00422. GRANINS_1. 1 hit.
PS00423. GRANINS_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiCMGA_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P05059
Secondary accession number(s): P79392, Q2KJ52
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 13, 1987
Last sequence update: November 1, 1988
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 157 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Binds calcium with a low-affinity.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.