P04618 (REV_HV1H2) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Last modified December 11, 2013. Version 95. History...
Names and origin
|Protein names||Recommended name:|
Regulator of expression of viral proteins
|Organism||Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) [Reference proteome]|
|Taxonomic identifier||11706 [NCBI]|
|Taxonomic lineage||Viruses › Retro-transcribing viruses › Retroviridae › Orthoretrovirinae › Lentivirus › Primate lentivirus group ›|
|Virus host||Homo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]|
|Sequence length||116 AA.|
|Protein existence||Evidence at protein level|
General annotation (Comments)
Escorts unspliced or incompletely spliced viral pre-mRNAs (late transcripts) out of the nucleus of infected cells. These pre-mRNAs carry a recognition sequence called Rev responsive element (RRE) located in the env gene, that is not present in fully spliced viral mRNAs (early transcripts). This function is essential since most viral proteins are translated from unspliced or partially spliced pre-mRNAs which cannot exit the nucleus by the pathway used by fully processed cellular mRNAs. Rev itself is translated from a fully spliced mRNA that readily exits the nucleus. Rev's nuclear localization signal (NLS) binds directly to KPNB1/Importin beta-1 without previous binding to KPNA1/Importin alpha-1. KPNB1 binds to the GDP bound form of RAN (Ran-GDP) and targets Rev to the nucleus. In the nucleus, the conversion from Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP dissociates Rev from KPNB1 and allows Rev's binding to the RRE in viral pre-mRNAs. Rev multimerization on the RRE via cooperative assembly exposes its nuclear export signal (NES) to the surface. Rev can then form a complex with XPO1/CRM1 and Ran-GTP, leading to nuclear export of the complex. Conversion from Ran-GTP to Ran-GDP mediates dissociation of the Rev/RRE/XPO1/RAN complex, so that Rev can return to the nucleus for a subsequent round of export. Beside KPNB1, also seems to interact with TNPO1/Transportin-1, RANBP5/IPO5 and IPO7/RANBP7 for nuclear import. The nucleoporin-like HRB/RIP is an essential cofactor that probably indirectly interacts with Rev to release HIV RNAs from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm By similarity. Interacts with DDX1; the interaction is necessary for proper subcellular localization of this protein.
Homomultimer; when bound to the RRE. Multimeric assembly is essential for activity and may involve XPO1. Binds to human KPNB1, XPO1, TNPO1, RANBP5 and IPO7. Interacts with the viral Integrase. Interacts with human KHDRBS1. Interacts with human NAP1; this interaction decreases Rev multimerization and stimulates its activity. Interacts with human DEAD-box helicases DDX3 and DDX24; these interactions may serve for viral RNA export to the cytoplasm and packaging, respectively. Interacts with human PSIP1; this interaction may inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by promoting dissociation of the Integrase-LEDGF/p75 complex By similarity. Ref.5
The RNA-binding motif binds to the RRE, a 240 bp stem-and-loop structure present in incompletely spliced viral pre-mRNAs. This region also contains the NLS which mediates nuclear localization via KPNB1 binding and, when the N-terminal sequence is present, nucleolar targeting. These overlapping functions prevent Rev bound to RRE from undesirable return to the nucleus. When Rev binds the RRE, the NLS becomes masked while the NES remains accessible. The leucine-rich NES mediates binding to human XPO1 By similarity.
Asymmetrically arginine dimethylated at one site by host PRMT6. Methylation impairs the RNA-binding activity and export of viral RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm By similarity.
HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).
Belongs to the HIV-1 REV protein family.
|CHCHD1||Q96BP2||3||EBI-6164309,EBI-5454898||From a different organism.|
|IK||Q13123||3||EBI-6164309,EBI-713456||From a different organism.|
|MITD1||Q8WV92||2||EBI-6164309,EBI-2691489||From a different organism.|
|MRPS9||P82933||2||EBI-6164309,EBI-721385||From a different organism.|
|SSBP1||Q04837||3||EBI-6164309,EBI-353460||From a different organism.|
Sequence annotation (Features)
|Feature key||Position(s)||Length||Description||Graphical view||Feature identifier|
|Chain||1 – 116||116||Protein Rev||PRO_0000085279|
|Region||18 – 26||9||Homomultimerization By similarity|
|Motif||34 – 50||17||Nuclear localization signal and RNA-binding (RRE) By similarity|
|Motif||73 – 84||12||Nuclear export signal and binding to XPO1 By similarity|
|Compositional bias||38 – 50||13||Poly-Arg|
Amino acid modifications
|Modified residue||5||1||Phosphoserine; by host CK2 Ref.2|
|Modified residue||8||1||Phosphoserine; by host CK2 Ref.2|
|Modified residue||92||1||Phosphoserine; by host By similarity|
|Modified residue||99||1||Phosphoserine; by host By similarity|
|||"Complete nucleotide sequences of functional clones of the AIDS virus."|
Ratner L., Fisher A., Jagodzinski L.L., Mitsuya H., Liou R.-S., Gallo R.C., Wong-Staal F.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3:57-69(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
|||"Phosphorylation of HIV-1 Rev protein: implication of protein kinase CK2 and pro-directed kinases."|
Meggio F., D'Agostino D.M., Ciminale V., Chieco-Bianchi L., Pinna L.A.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 226:547-554(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-5 AND SER-8 BY CK2.
|||"Unique features of HIV-1 Rev protein phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 ('casein kinase-2')."|
Marin O., Sarno S., Boschetti M., Pagano M.A., Meggio F., Ciminale V., D'Agostino D.M., Pinna L.A.
FEBS Lett. 481:63-67(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION BY CK2.
|||"HIV-1 Rev transactivator: a beta-subunit directed substrate and effector of protein kinase CK2."|
Meggio F., Marin O., Boschetti M., Sarno S., Pinna L.A.
Mol. Cell. Biochem. 227:145-151(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION BY CK2.
|||"A DEAD box protein facilitates HIV-1 replication as a cellular co-factor of Rev."|
Fang J., Kubota S., Yang B., Zhou N., Zhang H., Godbout R., Pomerantz R.J.
Virology 330:471-480(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH DDX1.
|||"The ins and outs of HIV Rev."|
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 365:186-191(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: REVIEW.
|+||Additional computationally mapped references.|
|BioAfrica HIV proteomics resource |
|K03455 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAB50257.1.|
|RefSeq||NP_057854.1. NC_001802.1. |
3D structure databases
Protein-protein interaction databases
|IntAct||P04618. 18 interactions.|
Protocols and materials databases
Genome annotation databases
Enzyme and pathway databases
|Reactome||REACT_116125. Disease. |
Family and domain databases
|InterPro||IPR000625. REV_protein. |
|Pfam||PF00424. REV. 1 hit. |
|Accession||Primary (citable) accession number: P04618|
|Entry status||Reviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)|
|Annotation program||Viral Protein Annotation Program|
Index of protein domains and families