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P04601 (NEF_HV1H2) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 114. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (1) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Interactions·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Protein Nef
Alternative name(s):
3'ORF
Negative factor
Short name=F-protein

Cleaved into the following chain:

  1. C-terminal core protein
Gene names
Name:nef
OrganismHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate HXB2) (HIV-1) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier11706 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

Protein attributes

Sequence length206 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Factor of infectivity and pathogenicity, required for optimal virus replication. Alters numerous pathways of T-lymphocytes function and down-regulates immunity surface molecules in order to evade host defense and increase viral infectivity. Alters the functionality of other immunity cells, like dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and NK cells. One of the earliest and most abundantly expressed viral proteins. Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.12 Ref.14 Ref.15

In infected CD4+ T-lymphocytes, down-regulates the surface MHC-I, mature MHC-II, CD4, CD28, CCR5 and CXCR4 molecules. Mediates internalization and degradation of host CD4 through the interaction of with the cytoplasmic tail of CD4, the recruitment of AP-2 (clathrin adapter protein complex 2), internalization through clathrin coated pits, and subsequent transport to endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. Diverts host MHC-I molecules to the trans-Golgi network-associated endosomal compartments by an endocytic pathway to finally target them for degradation. MHC-I down-regulation may involve AP-1 (clathrin adapter protein complex 1) or possibly Src family kinase-ZAP70/Syk-PI3K cascade recruited by PACS2. In consequence infected cells are masked for immune recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Decreasing the number of immune receptors also prevents reinfection by more HIV particles (superinfection). Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.12 Ref.14 Ref.15

Bypasses host T-cell signaling by inducing a transcriptional program nearly identical to that of anti-CD3 cell activation. Interaction with TCR-zeta chain up-regulates the Fas ligand (FasL). Increasing surface FasL molecules and decreasing surface MHC-I molecules on infected CD4+ cells send attacking cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes into apoptosis By similarity. Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.12 Ref.14 Ref.15

Plays a role in optimizing the host cell environment for viral replication without causing cell death by apoptosis. Protects the infected cells from apoptosis in order to keep them alive until the next virus generation is ready to strike. Inhibits the Fas and TNFR-mediated death signals by blocking MAP3K5. Interacts and decreases the half-life of p53, protecting the infected cell against p53-mediated apoptosis. Inhibits the apoptotic signals regulated by the Bcl-2 family proteins through the formation of a Nef/PI3-kinase/PAK2 complex that leads to activation of PAK2 and induces phosphorylation of Bad By similarity. Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.12 Ref.14 Ref.15

Extracellular Nef protein targets CD4+ T-lymphocytes for apoptosis by interacting with CXCR4 surface receptors. Ref.4 Ref.5 Ref.6 Ref.7 Ref.8 Ref.12 Ref.14 Ref.15

Subunit structure

Homodimer By similarity. Interacts with Nef associated p21-activated kinase (PAK2); this interaction activates PAK2. Associates with the Nef-MHC-I-AP1 complex; this complex is required for MHC-I internalization. Interacts (via C-terminus) with host PI3-kinase (via C-terminus). Interacts with host PACS1; this interaction seems to be weak. Interacts with host PACS2. Interacts with host LCK and MAPK3; these interactions inhibit the kinase activity of the latters. Interacts with host ATP6V1H; this interaction may play a role in CD4 endocytosis. Associates with the CD4-Nef-AP2 complex; this complex is required for CD4 internalization. Interacts with TCR-zeta chain; this interaction up-regulates the Fas ligand (FasL) surface expression. Interacts with various cellular proteins including MAP3K5, beta-COP, HCK, and PTE1. Interacts with human GNB2L1/RACK1; this increases Nef phosphorylation by PKC By similarity. Ref.6 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.15

Subcellular location

Host cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side By similarity. Host cytoplasmhost perinuclear region By similarity. Virion By similarity. Secreted. Note: Predominantly found in the paranuclear area, probably in the TGN. Correct localization requires PACS1. Also associates with the inner plasma membrane through its N-terminal domain. Nef stimulates its own export via the release of exosomes. Also incorporated in virions at a rate of about 10 molecules per virion, where it is cleaved By similarity. Ref.6 Ref.14

Domain

The N-terminal domain is composed of the N-myristoyl glycine and of a cluster of positively charged amino acids. It is required for inner plasma membrane targeting of Nef and virion incorporation, and thereby for infectivity. This domain is also involved in binding to p53 By similarity.

The SH3-binding domain constituted of PxxP motifs mediates binding to several Src family proteins thereby regulating their tyrosine kinase activity. The same motifs also mediates the association with MAPK3, PI3-kinase and TCR-zeta By similarity.

The di-leucine internalization motif and a diacidic motif seem to be required for binding to AP-2.

The acidic region may play a stabilizing role in the formation of a ternary complex between Nef, the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, and AP1M1.

Post-translational modification

The virion-associated Nef proteins are cleaved by the viral protease to release the soluble C-terminal core protein. Nef is probably cleaved concomitantly with viral structural proteins on maturation of virus particles By similarity. Ref.13

Phosphorylated on serine residues, probably by host PKC By similarity.

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the lentivirus primate group Nef protein family.

Sequence caution

The sequence AAB50263.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Readthrough of a premature stop codon in position 123 that truncates the Nef protein. The sequence displayed is that of wild-type full-length HXB2-R7 clone.

The sequence AAC82597.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Readthrough of a premature stop codon in position 123 that truncates the Nef protein. The sequence displayed is that of wild-type full-length HXB2-R7 clone.

The sequence CAA26946.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Readthrough of a premature stop codon in position 123 that truncates the Nef protein. The sequence displayed is that of wild-type full-length HXB2-R7 clone.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processApoptosis
Host-virus interaction
Inhibition of host adaptive immune response by virus
Inhibition of host autophagy by virus
Inhibition of host MHC class I molecule presentation by virus
Inhibition of host MHC class II molecule presentation by virus
Viral immunoevasion
Virulence
   Cellular componentHost cell membrane
Host cytoplasm
Host membrane
Membrane
Secreted
Virion
   Developmental stageEarly protein
   DiseaseAIDS
   DomainSH3-binding
   PTMLipoprotein
Myristate
Phosphoprotein
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processapoptotic process

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

entry into host cell

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

pathogenesis

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

regulation of defense response to virus by virus

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

suppression by virus of host adaptive immune response

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

suppression by virus of host antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

suppression by virus of host antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class II

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

suppression by virus of host autophagy

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

uncoating of virus

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

viral life cycle

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

viral process

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

virion assembly

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

   Cellular_componenthost cell perinuclear region of cytoplasm

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

host cell plasma membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

membrane

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

virion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

   Molecular_functionGTP binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

Complete GO annotation...

Binary interactions

With

Entry

#Exp.

IntAct

Notes

ACOT8O147345EBI-6164028,EBI-1237371From a different organism.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Initiator methionine11Removed; by host By similarity
Chain2 – 206205Protein Nef
PRO_0000038365
Chain58 – 206149C-terminal core protein By similarity
PRO_0000038366

Regions

Region2 – 5756N-terminal; associates with the host plasma membrane By similarity
Region7 – 2620Necessary for MHC-I internalization Probable
Region62 – 654Acidic; stabilizes the interaction of NEF/MHC-I with host AP1M1; necessary for MHC-I internalization and interaction with host PACS1 and PACS2 Probable
Region69 – 7810SH3-binding; interaction with Src family tyrosine kinases By similarity
Region108 – 12417Mediates dimerization, Nef-PTE1 interaction By similarity
Region148 – 18033Binding to ATP6V1H By similarity
Motif72 – 754PxxP; stabilizes the interaction of NEF/MHC-I with host AP1M1; necessary for MHC-I internalization Probable
Motif164 – 1652Di-leucine internalization motif; necessary for CD4 internalization Probable
Motif174 – 1752Diacidic; necessary for CD4 internalization Probable
Compositional bias62 – 654Poly-Glu

Sites

Site201Might play a role in AP-1 recruitment to the Nef-MHC-I complex
Site57 – 582Cleavage; by viral protease By similarity

Amino acid modifications

Lipidation21N-myristoyl glycine; by host By similarity

Experimental info

Mutagenesis201M → A: Complete loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation, MHC-I is internalized but not sequestred in TGN. Ref.8
Mutagenesis62 – 654EEEE → AAAA: Complete loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation, MHC-I is not internalized. Reduced interaction with host PACS1 and PACS2. Ref.10 Ref.11
Mutagenesis62 – 654EEEE → AAEA: About 50% loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation. Ref.10 Ref.11
Mutagenesis62 – 654EEEE → AEAA: About 50% loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation. Ref.10 Ref.11
Mutagenesis62 – 654EEEE → DDDD: No effect on Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation. Ref.10 Ref.11
Mutagenesis62 – 643EEE → AAA: About 50% loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation.
Mutagenesis62 – 632EE → AA: Almost no effect on Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation.
Mutagenesis63 – 653EEE → AAA: About 50% loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation. Ref.8
Mutagenesis63 – 642EE → AA: Almost no effect on Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation.
Mutagenesis64 – 652EE → AA: Almost no effect on Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation.
Mutagenesis721P → A: Complete loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation, MHC-I is not internalized; when associated with A-75. Ref.8
Mutagenesis751P → A: Complete loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation, MHC-I is not internalized; when associated with A-72. Ref.8
Mutagenesis1231D → E: Complete loss of Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation, CD4 down-regulation, and enhancement of infectivity. Activates PAK2 twofold over wild-type levels.
Sequence conflict291R → G in CAA26946. Ref.1

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P04601 [UniParc].

Last modified February 9, 2010. Version 5.
Checksum: 5A26976E95483E9C

FASTA20623,469
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MGGKWSKSSV IGWPTVRERM RRAEPAADRV GAASRDLEKH GAITSSNTAA TNAACAWLEA 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
QEEEEVGFPV TPQVPLRPMT YKAAVDLSHF LKEKGGLEGL IHSQRRQDIL DLWIYHTQGY 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
FPDWQNYTPG PGVRYPLTFG WCYKLVPVEP DKIEEANKGE NTSLLHPVSL HGMDDPEREV 

       190        200 
LEWRFDSRLA FHHVARELHP EYFKNC 

« Hide

References

[1]"Polymorphism of the 3' open reading frame of the virus associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, human T-lymphotropic virus type III."
Ratner L., Starcich B.R., Josephs S.F., Hahn B.H., Reddy E.P., Livak K.J., Petteway S.R. Jr., Pearson M.L., Haseltine W.A., Arya S.K., Wong-staal F.
Nucleic Acids Res. 13:8219-8229(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
[2]"Complete nucleotide sequences of functional clones of the AIDS virus."
Ratner L., Fisher A., Jagodzinski L.L., Mitsuya H., Liou R.-S., Gallo R.C., Wong-Staal F.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3:57-69(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC RNA].
[3]Ratner L., Fisher A., Jagodzinski L.L., Mitsuya H., Liou R.-S., Gallo R.C., Wong-Staal F.
Submitted (APR-1997) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: SEQUENCE REVISION.
[4]"Nef induces CD4 endocytosis: requirement for a critical dileucine motif in the membrane-proximal CD4 cytoplasmic domain."
Aiken C., Konner J., Landau N.R., Lenburg M.E., Trono D.
Cell 76:853-864(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
Strain: Isolate HXB2-R7.
[5]"Nef-induced CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) down-regulation are governed by distinct determinants: N-terminal alpha helix and proline repeat of Nef selectively regulate MHC-I trafficking."
Mangasarian A., Piguet V., Wang J.-K., Chen Y.-L., Trono D.
J. Virol. 73:1964-1973(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
Strain: Isolate HXB2-R7.
[6]"HIV-1 Nef protein binds to the cellular protein PACS-1 to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complexes."
Piguet V., Wan L., Borel C., Mangasarian A., Demaurex N., Thomas G., Trono D.
Nat. Cell Biol. 2:163-167(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH HOST PACS1, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
Strain: Isolate HXB2-R7.
[7]"HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression."
Stumptner-Cuvelette P., Morchoisne S., Dugast M., Le Gall S., Raposo G., Schwartz O., Benaroch P.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:12144-12149(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
[8]"HIV-1 Nef downregulates MHC-I by a PACS-1- and PI3K-regulated ARF6 endocytic pathway."
Blagoveshchenskaya A.D., Thomas L., Feliciangeli S.F., Hung C.-H., Thomas G.
Cell 111:853-866(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF MET-20; 63-GLU--GLU-65; PRO-72 AND PRO-75.
Strain: Isolate HXB2D.
[9]"HIV-1 Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by recruiting AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail."
Roeth J.F., Williams M., Kasper M.R., Filzen T.M., Collins K.L.
J. Cell Biol. 167:903-913(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: IDENTIFICATION IN A AP1-NEF-MHC-I COMPLEX.
[10]"Functional characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef acidic domain."
Baugh L.L., Garcia J.V., Foster J.L.
J. Virol. 82:9657-9667(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: ACIDIC REGION, INTERACTION WITH HOST PACS1, MUTAGENESIS OF 62-GLU--GLU-65.
[11]"HIV-1 Nef binds PACS-2 to assemble a multikinase cascade that triggers major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) down-regulation: analysis using short interfering RNA and knock-out mice."
Atkins K.M., Thomas L., Youker R.T., Harriff M.J., Pissani F., You H., Thomas G.
J. Biol. Chem. 283:11772-11784(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: INTERACTION WITH HOST PACS2, INTERACTION WITH HOST PACS1, MUTAGENESIS OF 62-GLU--GLU-65.
[12]"The tyrosine binding pocket in the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) mu1 subunit is necessary for Nef to recruit AP-1 to the major histocompatibility complex class I cytoplasmic tail."
Wonderlich E.R., Williams M., Collins K.L.
J. Biol. Chem. 283:3011-3022(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, IDENTIFICATION IN A AP1(MU)-NEF-MHC-I COMPLEX.
[13]"Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef incorporation into virions does not increase infectivity."
Laguette N., Benichou S., Basmaciogullari S.
J. Virol. 83:1093-1104(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: CLEAVAGE BY VIRAL PROTEASE.
[14]"HIV Nef is secreted in exosomes and triggers apoptosis in bystander CD4(+) T cells."
Lenassi M., Cagney G., Liao M., Vaupotic T., Bartholomeeusen K., Cheng Y., Krogan N.J., Plemenitas A., Peterlin B.M.
Traffic 11:110-122(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[15]"An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex."
Singh R.K., Lau D., Noviello C.M., Ghosh P., Guatelli J.C.
PLoS ONE 4:E8364-E8364(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, IDENTIFICATION IN A AP1(MU)-NEF-MHC-I COMPLEX.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
X03187 Genomic RNA. Translation: CAA26946.1. Sequence problems.
K03455 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAB50263.1. Sequence problems.
AF033819 Genomic RNA. Translation: AAC82597.1. Sequence problems.
RefSeqNP_057857.2. NC_001802.1.

3D structure databases

ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid1205545. 62 interactions.
IntActP04601. 8 interactions.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneID156110.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_116125. Disease.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D3.30.62.10. 1 hit.
4.10.890.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR027480. HIV-1_Nef_anchor.
IPR027481. HIV-1_Nef_core.
IPR001558. HIV_Nef.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00469. F-protein. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF55671. SSF55671. 1 hit.
ProtoNetSearch...

Entry information

Entry nameNEF_HV1H2
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P04601
Secondary accession number(s): O09780, Q85587
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 13, 1987
Last sequence update: February 9, 2010
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 114 of the entry and version 5 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families