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Protein

Protein kinase C alpha type

Gene

PRKCA

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascades involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Depending on the cell type, is involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation. In cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Depending on the cell type, exhibits anti-apoptotic function and protects cells from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, or mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B-ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF-kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

Cofactori

Ca2+By similarityNote: Binds 3 Ca2+ ions per subunit. The ions are bound to the C2 domain.By similarity

Enzyme regulationi

Classical (or conventional) PKCs (PRKCA, PRKCB and PRKCG) are activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-497 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Thr-638 (turn motif) and Ser-657 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi186Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi187Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi187Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi193Calcium 2By similarity1
Binding sitei195Inositol phosphate groupBy similarity1
Binding sitei245Inositol phosphate groupBy similarity1
Metal bindingi246Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi246Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi247Calcium 2; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 2By similarity1
Metal bindingi248Calcium 3By similarity1
Metal bindingi252Calcium 3; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity1
Metal bindingi254Calcium 1By similarity1
Metal bindingi254Calcium 3By similarity1
Binding sitei368ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Active sitei463Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri36 – 86Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Zinc fingeri101 – 151Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Nucleotide bindingi345 – 353ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • protein kinase activity Source: Reactome
  • protein kinase C activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • scaffold protein binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • zinc ion binding Source: InterPro

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Cell adhesion

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Calcium, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding, Zinc

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.13. 908.
ReactomeiR-BTA-2514859. Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein kinase C alpha type (EC:2.7.11.13)
Short name:
PKC-A
Short name:
PKC-alpha
Gene namesi
Name:PRKCA
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Cytoplasm, Membrane, Mitochondrion, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi494T → A: Abolishes phosphorylation and catalytic activity; when associated with A-495 and A-497. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi495T → A: Abolishes phosphorylation and catalytic activity; when associated with A-494 and A-497. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi497T → A: Abolishes phosphorylation and catalytic activity; when associated with A-494 and A-495. 1 Publication1

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL2213.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
ChainiPRO_00000556782 – 672Protein kinase C alpha typeAdd BLAST671

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylalanineBy similarity1
Modified residuei226PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei319PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei494Phosphothreonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei495Phosphothreonine1 Publication1
Modified residuei497Phosphothreonine; by PDPK11 Publication1
Modified residuei501PhosphothreonineBy similarity1
Modified residuei628N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei631Phosphothreonine; by autocatalysisSequence analysisBy similarity1
Modified residuei638Phosphothreonine; by autocatalysisBy similarity1
Modified residuei651PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei657Phosphoserine1 Publication1
Modified residuei658Phosphotyrosine; by SYKBy similarity1

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP04409.
PRIDEiP04409.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP04409.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with ADAP1/CENTA1, CSPG4 and PRKCABP. Binds to SDPR in the presence of phosphatidylserine (By similarity). Interacts with PICK1 (via PDZ domain) (By similarity). Interacts with TRIM41 (By similarity). Recruited in a circadian manner into a nuclear complex which also includes BMAL1 and RACK1 (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • scaffold protein binding Source: BHF-UCL

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi159290. 2 interactors.
DIPiDIP-530N.
MINTiMINT-1529738.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000001407.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP04409.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP04409.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini172 – 260C2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST89
Domaini339 – 597Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST259
Domaini598 – 668AGC-kinase C-terminalAdd BLAST71

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain.Curated
Contains 1 C2 domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 2 phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc fingers.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Zinc finger

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Zinc fingeri36 – 86Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51
Zinc fingeri101 – 151Phorbol-ester/DAG-type 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST51

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Zinc-finger

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0694. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XNPH. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000233022.
HOVERGENiHBG108317.
InParanoidiP04409.
KOiK02677.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00029. C1. 2 hits.
Gene3Di2.60.40.150. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR000961. AGC-kinase_C.
IPR000008. C2_dom.
IPR020454. DAG/PE-bd.
IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR002219. PE/DAG-bd.
IPR017892. Pkinase_C.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR014375. Protein_kinase_C_a/b/g.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00130. C1_1. 2 hits.
PF00168. C2. 1 hit.
PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
PF00433. Pkinase_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000550. PKC_alpha. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00360. C2DOMAIN.
PR00008. DAGPEDOMAIN.
SMARTiSM00109. C1. 2 hits.
SM00239. C2. 1 hit.
SM00133. S_TK_X. 1 hit.
SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49562. SSF49562. 1 hit.
SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51285. AGC_KINASE_CTER. 1 hit.
PS50004. C2. 1 hit.
PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
PS00479. ZF_DAG_PE_1. 2 hits.
PS50081. ZF_DAG_PE_2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P04409-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MADVFPAAEP AAPQDVANRF ARKGALRQKN VHEVKNHRFI ARFFKQPTFC
60 70 80 90 100
SHCTDFIWGF GKQGFQCQVC CFVVHKRCHE FVTFSCPGAD KGPDTDDPRS
110 120 130 140 150
KHKFKIHTYG SPTFCDHCGS LLYGLIHQGM KCDTCDMNVH KQCVINVPSL
160 170 180 190 200
CGMDHTEKRG RIYLKAEVTD EKLHVTVRDA KNLIPMDPNG LSDPYVKLKL
210 220 230 240 250
IPDPKNESKQ KTKTIRSTLN PRWDESFTFK LKPSDKDRRL SEEIWDWDRT
260 270 280 290 300
TRNDFMGSLS FGVSELMKMP ASGWYKLLNQ EEGEYYNVPI PEGDEEGNVE
310 320 330 340 350
LRQKFEKAKL GPAGNKVISP SEDRRQPSNN LDRVKLTDFN FLMVLGKGSF
360 370 380 390 400
GKVMLADRKG TEELYAIKIL KKDVVIQDDD VECTMVEKRV LALLDKPPFL
410 420 430 440 450
TQLHSCFQTV DRLYFVMEYV NGGDLMYHIQ QVGKFKEPQA VFYAAEISIG
460 470 480 490 500
LFFLHKRGII YRDLKLDNVM LDSEGHIKIA DFGMCKEHMM DGVTTRTFCG
510 520 530 540 550
TPDYIAPEII AYQPYGKSVD WWAYGVLLYE MLAGQPPFDG EDEDELFQSI
560 570 580 590 600
MEHNVSYPKS LSKEAVSICK GLMTKHPGKR LGCGPEGERD VREHAFFRRI
610 620 630 640 650
DWEKLENREI QPPFKPKVCG KGAENFDKFF TRGQPVLTPP DQLVIANIDQ
660 670
SDFEGFSYVN PQFVHPILQS AV
Length:672
Mass (Da):76,837
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:i97BF46DB80FCF21A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M13973 mRNA. Translation: AAA30706.1.
PIRiA00621. KIBOC.
RefSeqiNP_776860.1. NM_174435.1.
UniGeneiBt.62458.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi282001.
KEGGibta:282001.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
M13973 mRNA. Translation: AAA30706.1.
PIRiA00621. KIBOC.
RefSeqiNP_776860.1. NM_174435.1.
UniGeneiBt.62458.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP04409.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi159290. 2 interactors.
DIPiDIP-530N.
MINTiMINT-1529738.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000001407.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiP04409.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL2213.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP04409.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP04409.
PRIDEiP04409.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi282001.
KEGGibta:282001.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi5578.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0694. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XNPH. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000233022.
HOVERGENiHBG108317.
InParanoidiP04409.
KOiK02677.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.7.11.13. 908.
ReactomeiR-BTA-2514859. Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiP04409.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00029. C1. 2 hits.
Gene3Di2.60.40.150. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR000961. AGC-kinase_C.
IPR000008. C2_dom.
IPR020454. DAG/PE-bd.
IPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR002219. PE/DAG-bd.
IPR017892. Pkinase_C.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR014375. Protein_kinase_C_a/b/g.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00130. C1_1. 2 hits.
PF00168. C2. 1 hit.
PF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
PF00433. Pkinase_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000550. PKC_alpha. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00360. C2DOMAIN.
PR00008. DAGPEDOMAIN.
SMARTiSM00109. C1. 2 hits.
SM00239. C2. 1 hit.
SM00133. S_TK_X. 1 hit.
SM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49562. SSF49562. 1 hit.
SSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS51285. AGC_KINASE_CTER. 1 hit.
PS50004. C2. 1 hit.
PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
PS00479. ZF_DAG_PE_1. 2 hits.
PS50081. ZF_DAG_PE_2. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiKPCA_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P04409
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 13, 1987
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 171 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.