Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

P04094 (PENK_RAT) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified March 19, 2014. Version 100. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (1) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Proenkephalin-A

Cleaved into the following 8 chains:

  1. Synenkephalin
  2. Met-enkephalin
    Alternative name(s):
    Opioid growth factor
    Short name=OGF
  3. PENK(114-133)
  4. PENK(143-185)
  5. Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu
  6. Leu-enkephalin
  7. PENK(239-260)
  8. Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe
Gene names
Name:Penk
Synonyms:Penk-rs, Penk1
OrganismRattus norvegicus (Rat) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus

Protein attributes

Sequence length269 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(239-260) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum. Ref.8

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Expressed in brain, heart and testis.

Post-translational modification

The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the opioid neuropeptide precursor family.

Mass spectrometry

Molecular mass is 2203.971 Da from positions 114 - 133. Determined by ESI. Ref.8

Molecular mass is 4592.8 Da from positions 143 - 185. Determined by ESI. Ref.8

Molecular mass is 2504.027 Da from positions 239 - 260. Determined by ESI. Ref.8

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2424 Potential
Peptide25 – 9773Synenkephalin
PRO_0000008281
Peptide100 – 1045Met-enkephalin
PRO_0000008282
Peptide107 – 1115Met-enkephalin
PRO_0000008283
Peptide114 – 13320PENK(114-133) Ref.8
PRO_0000008284
Peptide136 – 1405Met-enkephalin
PRO_0000008285
Peptide143 – 18543PENK(143-185)
PRO_0000008286
Peptide188 – 1958Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu
PRO_0000008287
Propeptide198 – 20912
PRO_0000008288
Peptide212 – 2165Met-enkephalin
PRO_0000008289
Propeptide219 – 22911
PRO_0000008290
Peptide232 – 2365Leu-enkephalin
PRO_0000008291
Peptide239 – 26022PENK(239-260)
PRO_0000008292
Peptide263 – 2697Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe
PRO_0000008293

Amino acid modifications

Disulfide bond26 ↔ 48 By similarity
Disulfide bond30 ↔ 52 By similarity
Disulfide bond33 ↔ 65 By similarity

Experimental info

Sequence conflict121L → V in AAA60734. Ref.2
Sequence conflict121L → V in CAA68804. Ref.5

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P04094 [UniParc].

Last modified November 1, 1986. Version 1.
Checksum: 2BF0EA81A1D59692

FASTA26930,932
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MAQFLRLCIW LLALGSCLLA TVQADCSQDC AKCSYRLVRP GDINFLACTL ECEGQLPSFK 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
IWETCKDLLQ VSKPEFPWDN IDMYKDSSKQ DESHLLAKKY GGFMKRYGGF MKKMDELYPV 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
EPEEEANGGE ILAKRYGGFM KKDADEGDTL ANSSDLLKEL LGTGDNRAKD SHQQESTNND 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
EDSTSKRYGG FMRGLKRSPQ LEDEAKELQK RYGGFMRRVG RPEWWMDYQK RYGGFLKRFA 

       250        260 
ESLPSDEEGE SYSKEVPEME KRYGGFMRF 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Rat brain preproenkephalin mRNA. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and distribution in the central nervous system."
Yoshikawa K., Williams C., Sabol S.L.
J. Biol. Chem. 259:14301-14308(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Strain: Fischer 344.
Tissue: Brain.
[2]"Isolation and characterization of the rat proenkephalin gene."
Rosen H., Douglass J., Herbert E.
J. Biol. Chem. 259:14309-14313(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Strain: Fischer 344.
[3]"Molecular cloning and sequence determination of rat preproenkephalin cDNA: sensitive probe for studying transcriptional changes in rat tissues."
Howells R.D., Kilpatrick D.L., Bhatt R., Monahan J.J., Poonian M., Udenfriend S.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:7651-7655(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Strain: Fischer 344.
Tissue: Brain.
[4]"Proenkephalin biosynthesis in the rat."
Howells R.D.
NIDA Res. Monogr. 70:43-65(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Brain.
[5]"A new species of enkephalin precursor mRNA with a distinct 5'-untranslated region in haploid germ cells."
Yoshikawa K., Maruyama K., Aizawa T., Yamamoto A.
FEBS Lett. 246:193-196(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Strain: Wistar.
Tissue: Testis.
[6]"Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and translation of proenkephalin mRNA from rat heart."
Rao S.M., Howells R.D.
Regul. Pept. 40:397-408(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Heart.
[7]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Testis.
[8]"Discovering new bioactive neuropeptides in the striatum secretome using in vivo microdialysis and versatile proteomics."
Bernay B., Gaillard M.-C., Guryca V., Emadali A., Kuhn L., Bertrand A., Detraz I., Carcenac C., Savasta M., Brouillet E., Garin J., Elalouf J.-M.
Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8:946-958(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 114-133; 143-185 AND 239-260, FUNCTION, MASS SPECTROMETRY.
Strain: Wistar.
Tissue: Corpus striatum.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
K02807 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA60734.1.
M28263 mRNA. Translation: AAA41115.1.
Y07503 mRNA. Translation: CAA68804.1.
S49491 mRNA. Translation: AAB24022.1.
BC083563 mRNA. Translation: AAH83563.1.
PIREQRTA. A92464.
RefSeqNP_058835.1. NM_017139.1.
XP_006237897.1. XM_006237835.1.
UniGeneRn.10015.

3D structure databases

ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING10116.ENSRNOP00000011892.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteP04094.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENSRNOT00000011892; ENSRNOP00000011892; ENSRNOG00000008943.
GeneID29237.
KEGGrno:29237.
UCSCRGD:68946. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTD5179.
RGD68946. Penk.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG40630.
GeneTreeENSGT00530000063761.
HOGENOMHOG000013003.
HOVERGENHBG000063.
InParanoidQ53X05.
OMAGGFMKKD.
OrthoDBEOG75TMCR.
TreeFamTF332620.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatorP04094.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR006024. Opioid_neupept.
IPR000703. Proenkphlin_A.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR11438. PTHR11438. 1 hit.
PTHR11438:SF3. PTHR11438:SF3. 1 hit.
PfamPF01160. Opiods_neuropep. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR01028. OPIOIDPRCRSR.
PR01029. PENKAPRCRSR.
PROSITEPS01252. OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

NextBio608502.
PMAP-CutDBP04094.
PROP04094.

Entry information

Entry namePENK_RAT
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P04094
Secondary accession number(s): Q53X05
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: November 1, 1986
Last modified: March 19, 2014
This is version 100 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families