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Protein

Proenkephalin-A

Gene

Penk

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Met- and Leu-enkephalins compete with and mimic the effects of opiate drugs. They play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress. PENK(114-133) and PENK(239-260) increase glutamate release in the striatum. PENK(114-133) decreases GABA concentration in the striatum.1 Publication

GO - Biological processi

  1. aggressive behavior Source: Ensembl
  2. behavioral fear response Source: Ensembl
  3. locomotory behavior Source: Ensembl
  4. neuropeptide signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. sensory perception of pain Source: Ensembl
  6. startle response Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Endorphin, Neuropeptide, Opioid peptide

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_306851. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_339234. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Proenkephalin-A
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Penk
Synonyms:Penk-rs, Penk1
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
ProteomesiUP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

RGDi68946. Penk.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular region Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2424Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Peptidei25 – 9773SynenkephalinPRO_0000008281Add
BLAST
Peptidei100 – 1045Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008282
Peptidei107 – 1115Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008283
Peptidei114 – 13320PENK(114-133)PRO_0000008284Add
BLAST
Peptidei136 – 1405Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008285
Peptidei143 – 18543PENK(143-185)PRO_0000008286Add
BLAST
Peptidei188 – 1958Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-LeuPRO_0000008287
Propeptidei198 – 20912PRO_0000008288Add
BLAST
Peptidei212 – 2165Met-enkephalinPRO_0000008289
Propeptidei219 – 22911PRO_0000008290Add
BLAST
Peptidei232 – 2365Leu-enkephalinPRO_0000008291
Peptidei239 – 26022PENK(239-260)PRO_0000008292Add
BLAST
Peptidei263 – 2697Met-enkephalin-Arg-PhePRO_0000008293

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 48By similarity
Disulfide bondi30 ↔ 52By similarity
Disulfide bondi33 ↔ 65By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

The N-terminal domain contains 6 conserved cysteines thought to be involved in disulfide bonding and/or processing.

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP04094.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP04094.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in brain, heart and testis.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP04094.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000011892.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40630.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063761.
HOGENOMiHOG000013003.
HOVERGENiHBG000063.
InParanoidiP04094.
KOiK18832.
OMAiFMKKMDE.
OrthoDBiEOG75TMCR.
PhylomeDBiP04094.
TreeFamiTF332620.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006024. Opioid_neupept.
IPR000703. Proenkphlin_A.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11438. PTHR11438. 1 hit.
PTHR11438:SF3. PTHR11438:SF3. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01160. Opiods_neuropep. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01028. OPIOIDPRCRSR.
PR01029. PENKAPRCRSR.
PROSITEiPS01252. OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P04094-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAQFLRLCIW LLALGSCLLA TVQADCSQDC AKCSYRLVRP GDINFLACTL
60 70 80 90 100
ECEGQLPSFK IWETCKDLLQ VSKPEFPWDN IDMYKDSSKQ DESHLLAKKY
110 120 130 140 150
GGFMKRYGGF MKKMDELYPV EPEEEANGGE ILAKRYGGFM KKDADEGDTL
160 170 180 190 200
ANSSDLLKEL LGTGDNRAKD SHQQESTNND EDSTSKRYGG FMRGLKRSPQ
210 220 230 240 250
LEDEAKELQK RYGGFMRRVG RPEWWMDYQK RYGGFLKRFA ESLPSDEEGE
260
SYSKEVPEME KRYGGFMRF
Length:269
Mass (Da):30,932
Last modified:November 1, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i2BF0EA81A1D59692
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti12 – 121L → V in AAA60734 (PubMed:6094550).Curated
Sequence conflicti12 – 121L → V in CAA68804 (PubMed:2707437).Curated

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 2203.971 Da from positions 114 - 133. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 4592.8 Da from positions 143 - 185. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2504.027 Da from positions 239 - 260. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K02807 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA60734.1.
M28263 mRNA. Translation: AAA41115.1.
Y07503 mRNA. Translation: CAA68804.1.
S49491 mRNA. Translation: AAB24022.1.
BC083563 mRNA. Translation: AAH83563.1.
PIRiA92464. EQRTA.
RefSeqiNP_058835.1. NM_017139.1.
XP_006237897.1. XM_006237835.1.
UniGeneiRn.10015.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000011892; ENSRNOP00000011892; ENSRNOG00000008943.
GeneIDi29237.
KEGGirno:29237.
UCSCiRGD:68946. rat.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
K02807 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA60734.1.
M28263 mRNA. Translation: AAA41115.1.
Y07503 mRNA. Translation: CAA68804.1.
S49491 mRNA. Translation: AAB24022.1.
BC083563 mRNA. Translation: AAH83563.1.
PIRiA92464. EQRTA.
RefSeqiNP_058835.1. NM_017139.1.
XP_006237897.1. XM_006237835.1.
UniGeneiRn.10015.

3D structure databases

ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000011892.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP04094.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000011892; ENSRNOP00000011892; ENSRNOG00000008943.
GeneIDi29237.
KEGGirno:29237.
UCSCiRGD:68946. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi5179.
RGDi68946. Penk.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40630.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063761.
HOGENOMiHOG000013003.
HOVERGENiHBG000063.
InParanoidiP04094.
KOiK18832.
OMAiFMKKMDE.
OrthoDBiEOG75TMCR.
PhylomeDBiP04094.
TreeFamiTF332620.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_306851. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_339234. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi608502.
PMAP-CutDBP04094.
PROiP04094.

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriP04094.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006024. Opioid_neupept.
IPR000703. Proenkphlin_A.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11438. PTHR11438. 1 hit.
PTHR11438:SF3. PTHR11438:SF3. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01160. Opiods_neuropep. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01028. OPIOIDPRCRSR.
PR01029. PENKAPRCRSR.
PROSITEiPS01252. OPIOIDS_PRECURSOR. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Rat brain preproenkephalin mRNA. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and distribution in the central nervous system."
    Yoshikawa K., Williams C., Sabol S.L.
    J. Biol. Chem. 259:14301-14308(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: Fischer 344.
    Tissue: Brain.
  2. "Isolation and characterization of the rat proenkephalin gene."
    Rosen H., Douglass J., Herbert E.
    J. Biol. Chem. 259:14309-14313(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Fischer 344.
  3. "Molecular cloning and sequence determination of rat preproenkephalin cDNA: sensitive probe for studying transcriptional changes in rat tissues."
    Howells R.D., Kilpatrick D.L., Bhatt R., Monahan J.J., Poonian M., Udenfriend S.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:7651-7655(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: Fischer 344.
    Tissue: Brain.
  4. "Proenkephalin biosynthesis in the rat."
    Howells R.D.
    NIDA Res. Monogr. 70:43-65(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.
  5. "A new species of enkephalin precursor mRNA with a distinct 5'-untranslated region in haploid germ cells."
    Yoshikawa K., Maruyama K., Aizawa T., Yamamoto A.
    FEBS Lett. 246:193-196(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: Wistar.
    Tissue: Testis.
  6. "Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and translation of proenkephalin mRNA from rat heart."
    Rao S.M., Howells R.D.
    Regul. Pept. 40:397-408(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Tissue: Heart.
  7. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Testis.
  8. "Discovering new bioactive neuropeptides in the striatum secretome using in vivo microdialysis and versatile proteomics."
    Bernay B., Gaillard M.-C., Guryca V., Emadali A., Kuhn L., Bertrand A., Detraz I., Carcenac C., Savasta M., Brouillet E., Garin J., Elalouf J.-M.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8:946-958(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 114-133; 143-185 AND 239-260, FUNCTION, MASS SPECTROMETRY.
    Strain: Wistar.
    Tissue: Corpus striatum.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPENK_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P04094
Secondary accession number(s): Q53X05
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: November 1, 1986
Last modified: April 1, 2015
This is version 107 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.