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Protein

Prorelaxin H2

Gene

RLN2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic ligaments and ripening of the cervix.

GO - Biological processi

  • female pregnancy Source: ProtInc
  • positive regulation of angiogenesis Source: CACAO
  • positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process Source: CACAO
  • positive regulation of gene expression Source: CACAO
  • regulation of metalloenzyme activity Source: CACAO
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_21314. Relaxin receptors.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Prorelaxin H2
Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:RLN2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 9

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:10027. RLN2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA34400.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

DMDMi132281.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 24241 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Peptidei25 – 5329Relaxin B chainPRO_0000016079Add
BLAST
Propeptidei56 – 157102Connecting peptidePRO_0000016080Add
BLAST
Peptidei162 – 18524Relaxin A chainPRO_0000016081Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi35 ↔ 172Interchain (between B and A chains)
Disulfide bondi47 ↔ 185Interchain (between B and A chains)
Modified residuei162 – 1621Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid1 Publication
Disulfide bondi171 ↔ 1761 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP04090.
PRIDEiP04090.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP04090.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Isoform 1 is expressed in the ovary during pregnancy. Also expressed in placenta, decidua and prostate. Isoform 2 is relatively abundant in placenta. It is in much lower abundance in the prostate gland. Not detected in the ovary.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP04090.
CleanExiHS_RLN2.
ExpressionAtlasiP04090. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP04090. HS.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000371040.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
185
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi27 – 293Combined sources
Helixi36 – 4914Combined sources
Helixi163 – 17311Combined sources
Helixi178 – 1825Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2MV1NMR-A163-185[»]
B25-53[»]
6RLXX-ray1.50A/C163-185[»]
B/D26-53[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP04090.
SMRiP04090. Positions 25-53.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP04090.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the insulin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40989.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000048834.
HOGENOMiHOG000236342.
HOVERGENiHBG003234.
InParanoidiP04090.
KOiK05255.
OMAiDKHSRKK.
OrthoDBiEOG7QZGC5.
PhylomeDBiP04090.
TreeFamiTF333404.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.100.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR016179. Insulin-like.
IPR022353. Insulin_CS.
IPR022352. Insulin_family.
IPR022421. Relaxin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00049. Insulin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00276. INSULINFAMLY.
PR02004. RELAXIN.
SMARTiSM00078. IlGF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56994. SSF56994. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P04090-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPRLFFFHLL GVCLLLNQFS RAVADSWMEE VIKLCGRELV RAQIAICGMS
60 70 80 90 100
TWSKRSLSQE DAPQTPRPVA EIVPSFINKD TETINMMSEF VANLPQELKL
110 120 130 140 150
TLSEMQPALP QLQQHVPVLK DSSLLFEEFK KLIRNRQSEA ADSSPSELKY
160 170 180
LGLDTHSRKK RQLYSALANK CCHVGCTKRS LARFC
Length:185
Mass (Da):21,043
Last modified:November 1, 1986 - v1
Checksum:iAC73DBDE2090091B
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P04090-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     71-117: EIVPSFINKD...ALPQLQQHVP → GDFIQTVSLG...HPSSTKIQKP
     118-185: Missing.

Show »
Length:117
Mass (Da):12,883
Checksum:i087AE9F24582740A
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti12 – 121V → F.
Corresponds to variant rs2020050 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_050007
Natural varianti28 – 281M → K.
Corresponds to variant rs618066 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_034444
Natural varianti68 – 681P → Q.
Corresponds to variant rs2273783 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022124

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei71 – 11747EIVPS…QQHVP → GDFIQTVSLGISPDGGKALR TGSCFTREFLGALSKLCHPS STKIQKP in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_002711Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei118 – 18568Missing in isoform 2. CuratedVSP_002712Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X00948 mRNA. Translation: CAA25460.1.
AL135786 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC04177.1.
BC126415 mRNA. Translation: AAI26416.1.
BC126419 mRNA. Translation: AAI26420.1.
S83200 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD14429.1. Sequence problems.
AF104935 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD21961.1.
CCDSiCCDS6460.1. [P04090-1]
PIRiA05092. A60982.
RefSeqiNP_005050.2. NM_005059.3. [P04090-2]
NP_604390.1. NM_134441.2. [P04090-1]
UniGeneiHs.127032.
Hs.368996.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000381627; ENSP00000371040; ENSG00000107014.
GeneIDi6019.
KEGGihsa:6019.
UCSCiuc003ziz.2. human. [P04090-2]
uc003zja.2. human. [P04090-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X00948 mRNA. Translation: CAA25460.1.
AL135786 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC04177.1.
BC126415 mRNA. Translation: AAI26416.1.
BC126419 mRNA. Translation: AAI26420.1.
S83200 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD14429.1. Sequence problems.
AF104935 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD21961.1.
CCDSiCCDS6460.1. [P04090-1]
PIRiA05092. A60982.
RefSeqiNP_005050.2. NM_005059.3. [P04090-2]
NP_604390.1. NM_134441.2. [P04090-1]
UniGeneiHs.127032.
Hs.368996.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
2MV1NMR-A163-185[»]
B25-53[»]
6RLXX-ray1.50A/C163-185[»]
B/D26-53[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP04090.
SMRiP04090. Positions 25-53.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000371040.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP04090.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

DMDMi132281.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP04090.
PRIDEiP04090.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi6019.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000381627; ENSP00000371040; ENSG00000107014.
GeneIDi6019.
KEGGihsa:6019.
UCSCiuc003ziz.2. human. [P04090-2]
uc003zja.2. human. [P04090-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi6019.
GeneCardsiGC09M005311.
HGNCiHGNC:10027. RLN2.
MIMi179740. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P04090.
PharmGKBiPA34400.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG40989.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000048834.
HOGENOMiHOG000236342.
HOVERGENiHBG003234.
InParanoidiP04090.
KOiK05255.
OMAiDKHSRKK.
OrthoDBiEOG7QZGC5.
PhylomeDBiP04090.
TreeFamiTF333404.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_21314. Relaxin receptors.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP04090.
GenomeRNAii6019.
NextBioi23459.
PROiP04090.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP04090.
CleanExiHS_RLN2.
ExpressionAtlasiP04090. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP04090. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.100.10. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR016179. Insulin-like.
IPR022353. Insulin_CS.
IPR022352. Insulin_family.
IPR022421. Relaxin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00049. Insulin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00276. INSULINFAMLY.
PR02004. RELAXIN.
SMARTiSM00078. IlGF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56994. SSF56994. 2 hits.
PROSITEiPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Relaxin gene expression in human ovaries and the predicted structure of a human preprorelaxin by analysis of cDNA clones."
    Hudson P., John M., Crawford R., Haralambidis J., Scanlon D., Gorman J., Tregear G., Shine J., Niall H.
    EMBO J. 3:2333-2339(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  2. "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9."
    Humphray S.J., Oliver K., Hunt A.R., Plumb R.W., Loveland J.E., Howe K.L., Andrews T.D., Searle S., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Jones M.C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Ashwell R.I.S., Babbage A.K., Babbage S., Bagguley C.L.
    , Bailey J., Banerjee R., Barker D.J., Barlow K.F., Bates K., Beasley H., Beasley O., Bird C.P., Bray-Allen S., Brown A.J., Brown J.Y., Burford D., Burrill W., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chapman J.C., Chen Y., Clarke G., Clark S.Y., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Collier R.E., Corby N., Crosier M., Cummings A.T., Davies J., Dhami P., Dunn M., Dutta I., Dyer L.W., Earthrowl M.E., Faulkner L., Fleming C.J., Frankish A., Frankland J.A., French L., Fricker D.G., Garner P., Garnett J., Ghori J., Gilbert J.G.R., Glison C., Grafham D.V., Gribble S., Griffiths C., Griffiths-Jones S., Grocock R., Guy J., Hall R.E., Hammond S., Harley J.L., Harrison E.S.I., Hart E.A., Heath P.D., Henderson C.D., Hopkins B.L., Howard P.J., Howden P.J., Huckle E., Johnson C., Johnson D., Joy A.A., Kay M., Keenan S., Kershaw J.K., Kimberley A.M., King A., Knights A., Laird G.K., Langford C., Lawlor S., Leongamornlert D.A., Leversha M., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Lovell J., Martin S., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L., McLaren S., McLay K.E., McMurray A., Milne S., Nickerson T., Nisbett J., Nordsiek G., Pearce A.V., Peck A.I., Porter K.M., Pandian R., Pelan S., Phillimore B., Povey S., Ramsey Y., Rand V., Scharfe M., Sehra H.K., Shownkeen R., Sims S.K., Skuce C.D., Smith M., Steward C.A., Swarbreck D., Sycamore N., Tester J., Thorpe A., Tracey A., Tromans A., Thomas D.W., Wall M., Wallis J.M., West A.P., Whitehead S.L., Willey D.L., Williams S.A., Wilming L., Wray P.W., Young L., Ashurst J.L., Coulson A., Blocker H., Durbin R.M., Sulston J.E., Hubbard T., Jackson M.J., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Dunham I.
    Nature 429:369-374(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Tissue: Brain.
  4. "Expression of human relaxin genes: characterization of a novel alternatively-spliced human relaxin mRNA species."
    Gunnersen J.M., Fu P., Roche P.J., Tregear G.W.
    Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 118:85-94(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 71-185 (ISOFORM 2), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Tissue: Prostate.
  5. "Analysis of the 5'-upstream regions of the human relaxin H1 and H2 genes and their chromosomal localization on chromosome 9p24.1 by radiation hybrid and breakpoint mapping."
    Garibay-Tupas J.L., Csiszar K., Fox M., Povey S., Bryant-Greenwood G.D.
    J. Mol. Endocrinol. 23:355-365(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-15.
  6. "Human seminal relaxin is a product of the same gene as human luteal relaxin."
    Winslow J.W., Shih A., Bourell J.H., Weiss G., Reed B., Stults J.T., Goldsmith L.T.
    Endocrinology 130:2660-2668(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 25-51.
    Tissue: Semen.
  7. "Structural characterization by mass spectrometry of native and recombinant human relaxin."
    Winslow J.W., Griffin P.R., Rinderknecht E., Vandlen R.L.
    Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom. 19:655-664(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 25-53 AND 162-185 (ISOFORM 1), PYROGLUTAMATE FORMATION AT GLN-162.
  8. "Total synthesis of human relaxin and human relaxin derivatives by solid-phase peptide synthesis and site-directed chain combination."
    Buellesbach E.E., Schwabe C.
    J. Biol. Chem. 266:10754-10761(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SYNTHESIS.
  9. "X-ray structure of human relaxin at 1.5 A. Comparison to insulin and implications for receptor binding determinants."
    Eigenbrot C., Randal M., Quan C., Burnier J., O'Connell L., Rinderknecht E., Kossiakoff A.A.
    J. Mol. Biol. 221:15-21(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.5 ANGSTROMS).

Entry informationi

Entry nameiREL2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P04090
Secondary accession number(s): A0AVM0
, Q99936, Q9UCX3, Q9UQJ2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: November 1, 1986
Last modified: July 22, 2015
This is version 160 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 9
    Human chromosome 9: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.