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P04090 (REL2_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 151. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (6) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Web links·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Prorelaxin H2

Cleaved into the following 2 chains:

  1. Relaxin B chain
  2. Relaxin A chain
Gene names
Name:RLN2
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length185 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Relaxin is an ovarian hormone that acts with estrogen to produce dilatation of the birth canal in many mammals. May be involved in remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy, promoting growth of pubic ligaments and ripening of the cervix.

Subunit structure

Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Isoform 1 is expressed in the ovary during pregnancy. Also expressed in placenta, decidua and prostate. Isoform 2 is relatively abundant in placenta. It is in much lower abundance in the prostate gland. Not detected in the ovary. Ref.1 Ref.4

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the insulin family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Cellular componentSecreted
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
Polymorphism
   DomainSignal
   Molecular functionHormone
   PTMCleavage on pair of basic residues
Disulfide bond
Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid
   Technical term3D-structure
Complete proteome
Direct protein sequencing
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processfemale pregnancy

Traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

   Cellular_componentextracellular region

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 2 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform 1 (identifier: P04090-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform 2 (identifier: P04090-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     71-117: EIVPSFINKD...ALPQLQQHVP → GDFIQTVSLG...HPSSTKIQKP
     118-185: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2424 Ref.6 Ref.7
Peptide25 – 5329Relaxin B chain Ref.7
PRO_0000016079
Propeptide56 – 157102Connecting peptide
PRO_0000016080
Peptide162 – 18524Relaxin A chain
PRO_0000016081

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue1621Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid Ref.7
Disulfide bond35 ↔ 172Interchain (between B and A chains)
Disulfide bond47 ↔ 185Interchain (between B and A chains)
Disulfide bond171 ↔ 176 Ref.8

Natural variations

Alternative sequence71 – 11747EIVPS…QQHVP → GDFIQTVSLGISPDGGKALR TGSCFTREFLGALSKLCHPS STKIQKP in isoform 2.
VSP_002711
Alternative sequence118 – 18568Missing in isoform 2.
VSP_002712
Natural variant121V → F.
Corresponds to variant rs2020050 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_050007
Natural variant281M → K.
Corresponds to variant rs618066 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_034444
Natural variant681P → Q.
Corresponds to variant rs2273783 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_022124

Secondary structure

......... 185
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform 1 [UniParc].

Last modified November 1, 1986. Version 1.
Checksum: AC73DBDE2090091B

FASTA18521,043
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MPRLFFFHLL GVCLLLNQFS RAVADSWMEE VIKLCGRELV RAQIAICGMS TWSKRSLSQE 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
DAPQTPRPVA EIVPSFINKD TETINMMSEF VANLPQELKL TLSEMQPALP QLQQHVPVLK 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
DSSLLFEEFK KLIRNRQSEA ADSSPSELKY LGLDTHSRKK RQLYSALANK CCHVGCTKRS 


LARFC 

« Hide

Isoform 2 [UniParc].

Checksum: 087AE9F24582740A
Show »

FASTA11712,883

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Relaxin gene expression in human ovaries and the predicted structure of a human preprorelaxin by analysis of cDNA clones."
Hudson P., John M., Crawford R., Haralambidis J., Scanlon D., Gorman J., Tregear G., Shine J., Niall H.
EMBO J. 3:2333-2339(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
[2]"DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9."
Humphray S.J., Oliver K., Hunt A.R., Plumb R.W., Loveland J.E., Howe K.L., Andrews T.D., Searle S., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Jones M.C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Ashwell R.I.S., Babbage A.K., Babbage S., Bagguley C.L. expand/collapse author list , Bailey J., Banerjee R., Barker D.J., Barlow K.F., Bates K., Beasley H., Beasley O., Bird C.P., Bray-Allen S., Brown A.J., Brown J.Y., Burford D., Burrill W., Burton J., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chapman J.C., Chen Y., Clarke G., Clark S.Y., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Collier R.E., Corby N., Crosier M., Cummings A.T., Davies J., Dhami P., Dunn M., Dutta I., Dyer L.W., Earthrowl M.E., Faulkner L., Fleming C.J., Frankish A., Frankland J.A., French L., Fricker D.G., Garner P., Garnett J., Ghori J., Gilbert J.G.R., Glison C., Grafham D.V., Gribble S., Griffiths C., Griffiths-Jones S., Grocock R., Guy J., Hall R.E., Hammond S., Harley J.L., Harrison E.S.I., Hart E.A., Heath P.D., Henderson C.D., Hopkins B.L., Howard P.J., Howden P.J., Huckle E., Johnson C., Johnson D., Joy A.A., Kay M., Keenan S., Kershaw J.K., Kimberley A.M., King A., Knights A., Laird G.K., Langford C., Lawlor S., Leongamornlert D.A., Leversha M., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Lovell J., Martin S., Mashreghi-Mohammadi M., Matthews L., McLaren S., McLay K.E., McMurray A., Milne S., Nickerson T., Nisbett J., Nordsiek G., Pearce A.V., Peck A.I., Porter K.M., Pandian R., Pelan S., Phillimore B., Povey S., Ramsey Y., Rand V., Scharfe M., Sehra H.K., Shownkeen R., Sims S.K., Skuce C.D., Smith M., Steward C.A., Swarbreck D., Sycamore N., Tester J., Thorpe A., Tracey A., Tromans A., Thomas D.W., Wall M., Wallis J.M., West A.P., Whitehead S.L., Willey D.L., Williams S.A., Wilming L., Wray P.W., Young L., Ashurst J.L., Coulson A., Blocker H., Durbin R.M., Sulston J.E., Hubbard T., Jackson M.J., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J., Dunham I.
Nature 429:369-374(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[3]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
Tissue: Brain.
[4]"Expression of human relaxin genes: characterization of a novel alternatively-spliced human relaxin mRNA species."
Gunnersen J.M., Fu P., Roche P.J., Tregear G.W.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 118:85-94(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 71-185 (ISOFORM 2), TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
Tissue: Prostate.
[5]"Analysis of the 5'-upstream regions of the human relaxin H1 and H2 genes and their chromosomal localization on chromosome 9p24.1 by radiation hybrid and breakpoint mapping."
Garibay-Tupas J.L., Csiszar K., Fox M., Povey S., Bryant-Greenwood G.D.
J. Mol. Endocrinol. 23:355-365(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-15.
[6]"Human seminal relaxin is a product of the same gene as human luteal relaxin."
Winslow J.W., Shih A., Bourell J.H., Weiss G., Reed B., Stults J.T., Goldsmith L.T.
Endocrinology 130:2660-2668(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 25-51.
Tissue: Semen.
[7]"Structural characterization by mass spectrometry of native and recombinant human relaxin."
Winslow J.W., Griffin P.R., Rinderknecht E., Vandlen R.L.
Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom. 19:655-664(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 25-53 AND 162-185 (ISOFORM 1), PYROGLUTAMATE FORMATION AT GLN-162.
[8]"Total synthesis of human relaxin and human relaxin derivatives by solid-phase peptide synthesis and site-directed chain combination."
Buellesbach E.E., Schwabe C.
J. Biol. Chem. 266:10754-10761(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SYNTHESIS.
[9]"X-ray structure of human relaxin at 1.5 A. Comparison to insulin and implications for receptor binding determinants."
Eigenbrot C., Randal M., Quan C., Burnier J., O'Connell L., Rinderknecht E., Kossiakoff A.A.
J. Mol. Biol. 221:15-21(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.5 ANGSTROMS).
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
X00948 mRNA. Translation: CAA25460.1.
AL135786 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC04177.1.
BC126415 mRNA. Translation: AAI26416.1.
BC126419 mRNA. Translation: AAI26420.1.
S83200 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD14429.1. Sequence problems.
AF104935 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD21961.1.
CCDSCCDS6460.1. [P04090-1]
PIRA60982. A05092.
RefSeqNP_005050.2. NM_005059.3. [P04090-2]
NP_604390.1. NM_134441.2. [P04090-1]
UniGeneHs.127032.
Hs.368996.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB-PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
6RLXX-ray1.50A/C163-185[»]
B/D26-53[»]
ProteinModelPortalP04090.
SMRP04090. Positions 26-52.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING9606.ENSP00000371040.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteP04090.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM132281.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbP04090.
PRIDEP04090.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU6019.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000308420; ENSP00000308018; ENSG00000107014. [P04090-2]
ENST00000381627; ENSP00000371040; ENSG00000107014. [P04090-1]
GeneID6019.
KEGGhsa:6019.
UCSCuc003ziz.2. human. [P04090-2]
uc003zja.2. human. [P04090-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTD6019.
GeneCardsGC09M005305.
HGNCHGNC:10027. RLN2.
MIM179740. gene.
neXtProtNX_P04090.
PharmGKBPA34400.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG40989.
HOGENOMHOG000236342.
HOVERGENHBG003234.
InParanoidP04090.
KOK05255.
OMALSEKCCQ.
OrthoDBEOG7QZGC5.
PhylomeDBP04090.
TreeFamTF333404.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.

Gene expression databases

BgeeP04090.
CleanExHS_RLN2.
GenevestigatorP04090.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D1.10.100.10. 2 hits.
InterProIPR016179. Insulin-like.
IPR022353. Insulin_CS.
IPR022352. Insulin_family.
IPR022421. Relaxin.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00049. Insulin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00276. INSULINFAMLY.
PR02004. RELAXIN.
SMARTSM00078. IlGF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF56994. SSF56994. 2 hits.
PROSITEPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceP04090.
GenomeRNAi6019.
NextBio23483.
PROP04090.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameREL2_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P04090
Secondary accession number(s): A0AVM0 expand/collapse secondary AC list , Q99936, Q9UCX3, Q9UQJ2
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 1, 1986
Last sequence update: November 1, 1986
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 151 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 9

Human chromosome 9: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM