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Protein

Alpha-fetoprotein

Gene

AFP

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Binds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Metal bindingi22Copper or nickel1 Publication1

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Ligandi

Copper, Metal-binding, Nickel

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000081051-MONOMER.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Alpha-fetoprotein
Alternative name(s):
Alpha-1-fetoprotein
Alpha-fetoglobulin
Gene namesi
Name:AFP
Synonyms:HPAFP
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:317. AFP.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Alpha-fetoprotein deficiency (AFPD)2 Publications
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA benign condition characterized by undetectable AFP levels in the amniotic fluid. Affected individuals are asymptomatic and present normal development.
See also OMIM:615969
Alpha-fetoprotein, hereditary persistence (HPAFP)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionA benign autosomal dominant condition characterized by continued expression of alpha-fetoprotein in adult life.
See also OMIM:615970

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi174.
MalaCardsiAFP.
MIMi615969. phenotype.
615970. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000081051.
Orphaneti168612. Congenital deficiency in alpha-fetoprotein.
168615. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein.
PharmGKBiPA24614.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAFP.
DMDMi120042.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 181 PublicationAdd BLAST18
ChainiPRO_000000109719 – 609Alpha-fetoproteinAdd BLAST591

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi99 ↔ 114
Modified residuei111Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi113 ↔ 124
Modified residuei115Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Modified residuei117Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi148 ↔ 193
Disulfide bondi192 ↔ 201
Disulfide bondi224 ↔ 270
GlycosylationiCAR_000070251N-linked (GlcNAc...)1
Disulfide bondi269 ↔ 277
Disulfide bondi289 ↔ 303
Disulfide bondi302 ↔ 313
Modified residuei344Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi384 ↔ 393
Disulfide bondi416 ↔ 462
Modified residuei444Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Modified residuei445Phosphoserine; by FAM20C1 Publication1
Disulfide bondi461 ↔ 472
Disulfide bondi485 ↔ 501
Disulfide bondi500 ↔ 511
Disulfide bondi538 ↔ 583
Disulfide bondi582 ↔ 591

Post-translational modificationi

Independent studies suggest heterogeneity of the N-terminal sequence of the mature protein and of the cleavage site of the signal sequence.
Sulfated.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, Phosphoprotein, Sulfation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP02771.
PaxDbiP02771.
PeptideAtlasiP02771.
PRIDEiP02771.
TopDownProteomicsiP02771.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP02771.
PhosphoSitePlusiP02771.
UniCarbKBiP02771.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Plasma. Synthesized by the fetal liver and yolk sac.

Developmental stagei

Occurs in the plasma of fetuses more than 4 weeks old, reaches the highest levels during the 12th-16th week of gestation, and drops to trace amounts after birth. The serum level in adults is usually less than 40 ng/ml. AFP occurs also at high levels in the plasma and ascitic fluid of adults with hepatoma.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000081051.
CleanExiHS_AFP.
ExpressionAtlasiP02771. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP02771. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB024283.
CAB025339.
HPA010607.
HPA023600.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Dimeric and trimeric forms have been found in addition to the monomeric form.

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
Q99IB82EBI-722498,EBI-6901449From a different organism.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106682. 11 interactors.
IntActiP02771. 10 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1401527.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000379138.

Structurei

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3MRKX-ray1.40P137-145[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP02771.
SMRiP02771.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini19 – 210Albumin 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST192
Domaini211 – 402Albumin 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST192
Domaini403 – 601Albumin 3PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST199

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Contains 3 albumin domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat, Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIRZ. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Z40H. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000000113.
HOGENOMiHOG000293137.
HOVERGENiHBG004207.
InParanoidiP02771.
KOiK16144.
PhylomeDBiP02771.
TreeFamiTF335561.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00015. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR000264. ALB/AFP/VDB.
IPR020858. Serum_albumin-like.
IPR021177. Serum_albumin/AFP/Afamin.
IPR020857. Serum_albumin_CS.
IPR014760. Serum_albumin_N.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00273. Serum_albumin. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF002520. Serum_albumin_subgroup. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00803. AFETOPROTEIN.
PR00802. SERUMALBUMIN.
SMARTiSM00103. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48552. SSF48552. 3 hits.
PROSITEiPS00212. ALBUMIN_1. 2 hits.
PS51438. ALBUMIN_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P02771-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKWVESIFLI FLLNFTESRT LHRNEYGIAS ILDSYQCTAE ISLADLATIF
60 70 80 90 100
FAQFVQEATY KEVSKMVKDA LTAIEKPTGD EQSSGCLENQ LPAFLEELCH
110 120 130 140 150
EKEILEKYGH SDCCSQSEEG RHNCFLAHKK PTPASIPLFQ VPEPVTSCEA
160 170 180 190 200
YEEDRETFMN KFIYEIARRH PFLYAPTILL WAARYDKIIP SCCKAENAVE
210 220 230 240 250
CFQTKAATVT KELRESSLLN QHACAVMKNF GTRTFQAITV TKLSQKFTKV
260 270 280 290 300
NFTEIQKLVL DVAHVHEHCC RGDVLDCLQD GEKIMSYICS QQDTLSNKIT
310 320 330 340 350
ECCKLTTLER GQCIIHAEND EKPEGLSPNL NRFLGDRDFN QFSSGEKNIF
360 370 380 390 400
LASFVHEYSR RHPQLAVSVI LRVAKGYQEL LEKCFQTENP LECQDKGEEE
410 420 430 440 450
LQKYIQESQA LAKRSCGLFQ KLGEYYLQNA FLVAYTKKAP QLTSSELMAI
460 470 480 490 500
TRKMAATAAT CCQLSEDKLL ACGEGAADII IGHLCIRHEM TPVNPGVGQC
510 520 530 540 550
CTSSYANRRP CFSSLVVDET YVPPAFSDDK FIFHKDLCQA QGVALQTMKQ
560 570 580 590 600
EFLINLVKQK PQITEEQLEA VIADFSGLLE KCCQGQEQEV CFAEEGQKLI

SKTRAALGV
Length:609
Mass (Da):68,678
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i4D4E45820E1C2D4F
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_033928187K → Q.Corresponds to variant rs35765619dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_012049570A → G.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs7790dbSNPEnsembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
V01514 mRNA. Translation: CAA24758.1.
M16110 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB58754.1.
AK314817 mRNA. Translation: BAG37340.1.
BC027881 mRNA. Translation: AAH27881.1.
M10949 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51674.1.
M10950 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51675.1.
Z19532 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA79592.1.
CCDSiCCDS3556.1.
PIRiA26624. FPHU.
RefSeqiNP_001125.1. NM_001134.2.
UniGeneiHs.518808.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000395792; ENSP00000379138; ENSG00000081051.
GeneIDi174.
KEGGihsa:174.
UCSCiuc003hgz.3. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Alpha-fetoprotein entry

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
V01514 mRNA. Translation: CAA24758.1.
M16110 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB58754.1.
AK314817 mRNA. Translation: BAG37340.1.
BC027881 mRNA. Translation: AAH27881.1.
M10949 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51674.1.
M10950 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA51675.1.
Z19532 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA79592.1.
CCDSiCCDS3556.1.
PIRiA26624. FPHU.
RefSeqiNP_001125.1. NM_001134.2.
UniGeneiHs.518808.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3MRKX-ray1.40P137-145[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP02771.
SMRiP02771.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106682. 11 interactors.
IntActiP02771. 10 interactors.
MINTiMINT-1401527.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000379138.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP02771.
PhosphoSitePlusiP02771.
UniCarbKBiP02771.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAFP.
DMDMi120042.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiP02771.
PaxDbiP02771.
PeptideAtlasiP02771.
PRIDEiP02771.
TopDownProteomicsiP02771.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi174.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000395792; ENSP00000379138; ENSG00000081051.
GeneIDi174.
KEGGihsa:174.
UCSCiuc003hgz.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi174.
DisGeNETi174.
GeneCardsiAFP.
HGNCiHGNC:317. AFP.
HPAiCAB024283.
CAB025339.
HPA010607.
HPA023600.
MalaCardsiAFP.
MIMi104150. gene.
615969. phenotype.
615970. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_P02771.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000081051.
Orphaneti168612. Congenital deficiency in alpha-fetoprotein.
168615. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein.
PharmGKBiPA24614.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IIRZ. Eukaryota.
ENOG410Z40H. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000000113.
HOGENOMiHOG000293137.
HOVERGENiHBG004207.
InParanoidiP02771.
KOiK16144.
PhylomeDBiP02771.
TreeFamiTF335561.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciZFISH:ENSG00000081051-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiAFP. human.
GeneWikiiAlpha-fetoprotein.
GenomeRNAii174.
PROiP02771.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000081051.
CleanExiHS_AFP.
ExpressionAtlasiP02771. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP02771. HS.

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00015. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
InterProiIPR000264. ALB/AFP/VDB.
IPR020858. Serum_albumin-like.
IPR021177. Serum_albumin/AFP/Afamin.
IPR020857. Serum_albumin_CS.
IPR014760. Serum_albumin_N.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00273. Serum_albumin. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF002520. Serum_albumin_subgroup. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00803. AFETOPROTEIN.
PR00802. SERUMALBUMIN.
SMARTiSM00103. ALBUMIN. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48552. SSF48552. 3 hits.
PROSITEiPS00212. ALBUMIN_1. 2 hits.
PS51438. ALBUMIN_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiFETA_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P02771
Secondary accession number(s): B2RBU3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 175 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 4
    Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.