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Protein

Apolipoprotein C-II

Gene

APOC2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in plasma. Plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism as an activator of lipoprotein lipase. Both proapolipoprotein C-II and apolipoprotein C-II can activate lipoprotein lipase. In normolipidemic individuals, it is mainly distributed in the HDL, whereas in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, predominantly found in the VLDL and LDL.1 Publication1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • lipase inhibitor activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipid binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipoprotein lipase activator activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipase activator activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipase binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: BHF-UCL

GO - Biological processi

  • cholesterol efflux Source: BHF-UCL
  • cholesterol homeostasis Source: BHF-UCL
  • chylomicron remnant clearance Source: BHF-UCL
  • chylomicron remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • high-density lipoprotein particle clearance Source: BHF-UCL
  • lipid catabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • lipoprotein metabolic process Source: Reactome
  • negative regulation of cholesterol transport Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of lipid metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis Source: BHF-UCL
  • negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance Source: BHF-UCL
  • phospholipid efflux Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of phospholipase activity Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of phospholipid catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
  • positive regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • retinoid metabolic process Source: Reactome
  • reverse cholesterol transport Source: BHF-UCL
  • triglyceride homeostasis Source: BHF-UCL
  • triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
  • very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Source: BHF-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Lipid degradation, Lipid metabolism, Lipid transport, Transport

Keywords - Ligandi

Sialic acid

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-174800. Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport.
R-HSA-194223. HDL-mediated lipid transport.
R-HSA-975634. Retinoid metabolism and transport.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apolipoprotein C-II
Short name:
Apo-CII
Short name:
ApoC-II
Alternative name(s):
Apolipoprotein C2
Cleaved into the following chain:
Proapolipoprotein C-II
Short name:
ProapoC-II
Gene namesi
Name:APOC2
Synonyms:APC2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 19

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:609. APOC2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chylomicron Source: BHF-UCL
  • early endosome Source: Reactome
  • extracellular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  • extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
  • extracellular space Source: BHF-UCL
  • intermediate-density lipoprotein particle Source: BHF-UCL
  • low-density lipoprotein particle Source: BHF-UCL
  • spherical high-density lipoprotein particle Source: BHF-UCL
  • very-low-density lipoprotein particle Source: BHF-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chylomicron, HDL, LDL, Secreted, VLDL

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Hyperlipoproteinemia 1B (HLPP1B)1 Publication
The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
Disease descriptionAutosomal recessive trait characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, xanthomas, and increased risk of pancreatitis and early atherosclerosis.
See also OMIM:207750
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_00064048W → R in HLPP1B; variant Wakayama. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs120074115dbSNPEnsembl.1

Keywords - Diseasei

Disease mutation, Hyperlipidemia

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi344.
MalaCardsiAPOC2.
MIMi207750. phenotype.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000224916.
ENSG00000234906.
Orphaneti309020. Familial apolipoprotein C-II deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA52.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAPOC2.
DMDMi114022.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 222 PublicationsAdd BLAST22
ChainiPRO_000000202423 – 101Proapolipoprotein C-II2 PublicationsAdd BLAST79
ChainiPRO_000043083929 – 101Apolipoprotein C-II1 PublicationAdd BLAST73

Post-translational modificationi

Proapolipoprotein C-II is synthesized as a sialic acid containing glycoprotein which is subsequently desialylated prior to its proteolytic processing.1 Publication
Proapolipoprotein C-II, the major form found in plasma undergoes proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal hexapeptide to generate apolipoprotein C-II, which occurs as the minor form in plasma.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiP02655.
MaxQBiP02655.
PaxDbiP02655.
PeptideAtlasiP02655.
PRIDEiP02655.
TopDownProteomicsiP02655.

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEP02655.
SWISS-2DPAGEP02655.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP02655.
PhosphoSitePlusiP02655.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP02655.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Liver and intestine.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000234906.
CleanExiHS_APC2.
HS_APOC2.
ExpressionAtlasiP02655. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP02655. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA055877.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phospholipase binding Source: BHF-UCL
  • protein homodimerization activity Source: BHF-UCL

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106841. 3 interactors.
IntActiP02655. 4 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000466775.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1101
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi28 – 31Combined sources4
Helixi37 – 57Combined sources21
Turni58 – 61Combined sources4
Beta strandi62 – 64Combined sources3
Turni68 – 70Combined sources3
Beta strandi71 – 74Combined sources4
Turni75 – 77Combined sources3
Turni79 – 81Combined sources3
Beta strandi86 – 88Combined sources3
Helixi92 – 94Combined sources3
Helixi97 – 99Combined sources3

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1BY6NMR-A66-101[»]
1I5JNMR-A23-101[»]
1O8TNMR-A23-101[»]
1SOHNMR-A23-101[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP02655.
SMRiP02655.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP02655.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni23 – 38O-glycosylated at one siteAdd BLAST16
Regioni66 – 74Lipid binding1 Publication9
Regioni78 – 101Lipoprotein lipase cofactor2 PublicationsAdd BLAST24

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apolipoprotein C2 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J3QQ. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111AXD. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000007913.
HOGENOMiHOG000034002.
HOVERGENiHBG050548.
InParanoidiP02655.
OrthoDBiEOG091G17WL.
PhylomeDBiP02655.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.1440.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008019. Apo-CII.
IPR023121. ApoC-II_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR16566. PTHR16566. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05355. Apo-CII. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P02655-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGTRLLPALF LVLLVLGFEV QGTQQPQQDE MPSPTFLTQV KESLSSYWES
60 70 80 90 100
AKTAAQNLYE KTYLPAVDEK LRDLYSKSTA AMSTYTGIFT DQVLSVLKGE

E
Length:101
Mass (Da):11,284
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i51CB86FEDB174D84
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti36F → L in AAP35354 (Ref. 7) Curated1
Sequence conflicti36F → L in ACN81313 (Ref. 8) Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_00063941K → T.2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs120074114dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_00064048W → R in HLPP1B; variant Wakayama. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs120074115dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_00064160E → K in San Francisco; found in hyperlipidemic patients. 1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs5122dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_00064277K → Q in Africa. 2 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs5126dbSNPEnsembl.1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X05151 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA28798.1.
X00568 mRNA. Translation: CAA25234.1.
J02698 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA98743.1.
AY422955 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAQ91814.1.
BT006708 mRNA. Translation: AAP35354.1.
FJ525875 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACN81313.1.
CH471126 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW57311.1.
BC005348 mRNA. Translation: AAH05348.3.
M29844 mRNA. Translation: AAA51743.1.
M10612 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59380.1.
AF113884 mRNA. Translation: AAD28193.1.
CCDSiCCDS12650.1.
PIRiA24238. LPHUC2.
RefSeqiNP_000474.2. NM_000483.4.
UniGeneiHs.75615.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000590360; ENSP00000466775; ENSG00000234906.
GeneIDi344.
KEGGihsa:344.
UCSCiuc060zuu.1. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X05151 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA28798.1.
X00568 mRNA. Translation: CAA25234.1.
J02698 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA98743.1.
AY422955 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAQ91814.1.
BT006708 mRNA. Translation: AAP35354.1.
FJ525875 Genomic DNA. Translation: ACN81313.1.
CH471126 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW57311.1.
BC005348 mRNA. Translation: AAH05348.3.
M29844 mRNA. Translation: AAA51743.1.
M10612 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59380.1.
AF113884 mRNA. Translation: AAD28193.1.
CCDSiCCDS12650.1.
PIRiA24238. LPHUC2.
RefSeqiNP_000474.2. NM_000483.4.
UniGeneiHs.75615.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1BY6NMR-A66-101[»]
1I5JNMR-A23-101[»]
1O8TNMR-A23-101[»]
1SOHNMR-A23-101[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP02655.
SMRiP02655.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi106841. 3 interactors.
IntActiP02655. 4 interactors.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000466775.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP02655.
PhosphoSitePlusiP02655.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiAPOC2.
DMDMi114022.

2D gel databases

DOSAC-COBS-2DPAGEP02655.
SWISS-2DPAGEP02655.

Proteomic databases

EPDiP02655.
MaxQBiP02655.
PaxDbiP02655.
PeptideAtlasiP02655.
PRIDEiP02655.
TopDownProteomicsiP02655.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi344.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000590360; ENSP00000466775; ENSG00000234906.
GeneIDi344.
KEGGihsa:344.
UCSCiuc060zuu.1. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi344.
DisGeNETi344.
GeneCardsiAPOC2.
HGNCiHGNC:609. APOC2.
HPAiHPA055877.
MalaCardsiAPOC2.
MIMi207750. phenotype.
608083. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P02655.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000224916.
ENSG00000234906.
Orphaneti309020. Familial apolipoprotein C-II deficiency.
PharmGKBiPA52.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J3QQ. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111AXD. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000007913.
HOGENOMiHOG000034002.
HOVERGENiHBG050548.
InParanoidiP02655.
OrthoDBiEOG091G17WL.
PhylomeDBiP02655.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-174800. Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport.
R-HSA-194223. HDL-mediated lipid transport.
R-HSA-975634. Retinoid metabolism and transport.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP02655.
GeneWikiiApolipoprotein_C2.
GenomeRNAii344.
PMAP-CutDBP02655.
PROiP02655.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000234906.
CleanExiHS_APC2.
HS_APOC2.
ExpressionAtlasiP02655. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP02655. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.1440.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR008019. Apo-CII.
IPR023121. ApoC-II_domain.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR16566. PTHR16566. 1 hit.
PfamiPF05355. Apo-CII. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPOC2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P02655
Secondary accession number(s): C0JYY4
, Q9BS39, Q9UDE3, Q9UNK3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 190 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 19
    Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  6. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.