Skip Header

You are using a version of Internet Explorer that may not display all features of this website. Please upgrade to a modern browser.
Contribute Send feedback
Read comments (?) or add your own

P01519 (CA1A_CONGE) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 91. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (2) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Alpha-conotoxin GIA

Cleaved into the following chain:

  1. Alpha-conotoxin GI
    Alternative name(s):
    G1
OrganismConus geographus (Geography cone) (Nubecula geographus)
Taxonomic identifier6491 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaLophotrochozoaMolluscaGastropodaCaenogastropodaHypsogastropodaNeogastropodaConoideaConidaeConus

Protein attributes

Sequence length15 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Alpha-conotoxins act on postsynaptic membranes, they bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and thus inhibit them. The higher affinity site for alpha-conotoxin GI is the alpha/delta site on mouse muscle-derived BC3H-1 receptor, and the other site (alpha/gamma site) on nicotinic receptors from Torpedo californica electric organ.

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Expressed by the venom duct.

Domain

The cysteine framework is I (CC-C-C).

Post-translational modification

Not hydroxylated; hydroxylation, on a synthetic hydroxylated GI, improves its folding but impairs its activity against target receptors.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the conotoxin A superfamily.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Peptide1 – 1515Alpha-conotoxin GIA
PRO_0000034873
Peptide1 – 1313Alpha-conotoxin GI
PRO_0000034874

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue131Cysteine amide; in alpha-conotoxin GI
Modified residue151Lysine amide; in form alpha-conotoxin GIA
Disulfide bond2 ↔ 7 Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.13
Disulfide bond3 ↔ 13 Ref.2 Ref.3 Ref.8 Ref.9 Ref.10 Ref.11 Ref.12 Ref.13

Experimental info

Mutagenesis91R → A: Reduction in affinity for both alpha/delta and alpha/gamma sites on BC3H-1 receptors and loss of affinity for both alpha/delta and alpha/gamma sites on Torpedo receptors (in GI). Ref.6

Secondary structure

... 15
Helix Strand Turn

Details...

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
P01519 [UniParc].

Last modified July 21, 1986. Version 1.
Checksum: 2AE73EE90F8C2E19

FASTA151,628
        10 
ECCNPACGRH YSCGK 

« Hide

References

[1]"Peptide toxins from Conus geographus venom."
Gray W.R., Luque A., Olivera B.M., Barrett J., Cruz L.J.
J. Biol. Chem. 256:4734-4740(1981) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE.
[2]"Primary and secondary structure of conotoxin GI, a neurotoxic tridecapeptide from a marine snail."
Nishiuchi Y., Sakakibara S.
FEBS Lett. 148:260-262(1982) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DISULFIDE BONDS IN GI, SYNTHESIS OF GI.
[3]"Conotoxin GI: disulfide bridges, synthesis, and preparation of iodinated derivatives."
Gray W.R., Luque F.A., Galyean R., Atherton E., Sheppard R.C., Stone B.L., Reyes A., Alford J., McIntosh M., Olivera B.M., Cruz L.J., Rivier J.
Biochemistry 23:2796-2802(1984) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: DISULFIDE BONDS IN GI, SYNTHESIS OF GI.
[4]"The alpha-conotoxins GI and MI distinguish between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist sites while SI does not."
Hann R.M., Pagan O.R., Eterovic V.A.
Biochemistry 33:14058-14063(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: COMPARISON WITH ALPHA-CONOTOXIN SI AND ALPHA-CONOTOXIN MI.
[5]"Alpha-conotoxins selectively inhibit one of the two acetylcholine binding sites of nicotinic receptors."
Groebe D.R., Dumm J.M., Levitan E.S., Abramson S.N.
Mol. Pharmacol. 48:105-111(1995) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: PHARMACOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION ON MOUSE MUSCLE-DERIVED BC3H-1 CELLS AND TORPEDO ELECTRIC ORGAN.
[6]"Determinants involved in the affinity of alpha-conotoxins GI and SI for the muscle subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors."
Groebe D.R., Gray W.R., Abramson S.N.
Biochemistry 36:6469-6474(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: MUTAGENESIS OF ARG-9.
[7]"Role of hydroxyprolines in the in vitro oxidative folding and biological activity of conotoxins."
Lopez-Vera E., Walewska A., Skalicky J.J., Olivera B.M., Bulaj G.
Biochemistry 47:1741-1751(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: SYNTHESIS, ROLE OF HYDROXYLATION.
[8]"Three-dimensional structure of the alpha-conotoxin GI at 1.2-A resolution."
Guddat L.W., Martin J.A., Shan L., Edmundson A.B., Gray W.R.
Biochemistry 35:11329-11335(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.2 ANGSTROMS) OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
[9]"Solution conformation of conotoxin GI determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations."
Kobayashi Y., Ohkubo T., Kyogoku Y., Nishiuchi Y., Sakakibara S., Braun W., Go N.
Biochemistry 28:4853-4860(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
[10]"Solution structures of alpha-conotoxin G1 determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy."
Pardi A., Galdes A., Florance J., Maniconte D.
Biochemistry 28:5494-5501(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
[11]"Two distinct structures of alpha-conotoxin GI in aqueous solution."
Maslennikov I.V., Sobol A.G., Gladky K.V., Lugovskoy A.A., Ostrovsky A.G., Tsetlin V.I., Ivanov V.T., Arseniev A.S.
Eur. J. Biochem. 254:238-247(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
[12]"Structure determination of the three disulfide bond isomers of alpha-conotoxin GI: a model for the role of disulfide bonds in structural stability."
Gehrmann J., Alewood P.F., Craik D.J.
J. Mol. Biol. 278:401-415(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
[13]"NMR solution conformation of an antitoxic analogue of alpha-conotoxin GI: identification of a common nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha(1)-subunit binding surface for small ligands and alpha-conotoxins."
Mok K.H., Han K.H.
Biochemistry 38:11895-11904(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF AN ANTITOXIC ANALOG OF GI, DISULFIDE BONDS.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

PIRNTKNAG. A01782.

3D structure databases

PDBe
RCSB-PDB
PDBj
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1NOTX-ray1.20A1-13[»]
1QS3NMR-A2-12[»]
1XGANMR-A1-13[»]
1XGBNMR-A1-13[»]
1XGCNMR-A1-13[»]
2FR9NMR-A1-11[»]
2FRBNMR-A1-13[»]
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Organism-specific databases

ConoServer74. GI.
22. GIA.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR018072. Conotoxin_a-typ_CS.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEPS60014. ALPHA_CONOTOXIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

EvolutionaryTraceP01519.

Entry information

Entry nameCA1A_CONGE
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: P01519
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 91 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

PDB cross-references

Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references