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Protein

Melittin

Gene

MELT

Organism
Apis mellifera (Honeybee)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Melittin: Main toxin of bee venom with strong hemolytic activity. Forms a pore in the cell membrane by inserting into lipid bilayers in an alpha-helical conformation and has multiple effects, probably, as a result of its interaction with negatively charged phospholipids. It inhibits well known transport pumps such as the Na+-K+-ATPase and the H+-K+-ATPase. It increases the permeability of cell membranes to ions, particularly Na+ and indirectly Ca2+, because of the Na+-Ca2+-exchange. It acts synergistically with phospholipase A2.1 Publication
Melittin-S: 1.4-fold less hemolytic and adopts a less organized secondary structure than melittin.1 Publication

Miscellaneous

N-formyl-melittin major has 80% of the activity of melittin.
Melittin: The secretion of this protein into venom follows a seasonal pattern. This variation is synchronized with phospholipase A2 variation, i.e. their production increase in the same months.
Melittin-S: The secretion of this protein into venom follows a seasonal pattern, the maximum secretion occurring during the (southern) winter months.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionToxin
Biological processCytolysis, Hemolysis, Ion transport, Transport

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi1.C.18.1.1 the melittin (melittin) family

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Melittin
Alternative name(s):
Allergen Api m 3
Allergen Api m III
Allergen: Api m 4
Gene namesi
Name:MELT
OrganismiApis mellifera (Honeybee)
Taxonomic identifieri7460 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraHolometabolaHymenopteraApocritaAculeataApoideaApidaeApis
Proteomesi
  • UP000005203 Componenti: Linkage group 4

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Membrane, Secreted, Target cell membrane, Target membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Allergenic propertiesi

Causes an allergic reaction in human.

Toxic dosei

LC(50) is 2.7 µg/ml against killifish.

Keywords - Diseasei

Allergen

Protein family/group databases

Allergomei3091 Api m 4.0101
48 Api m 4

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3351188

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 21Add BLAST21
PropeptideiPRO_000003514822 – 43Removed by a dipeptidylpeptidase3 PublicationsAdd BLAST22
PeptideiPRO_000003514944 – 69MelittinAdd BLAST26

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei44N-formylglycine; partial1 Publication1
Modified residuei69Glutamine amide1 Publication1

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Formylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01501

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiP01501

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer and homotetramer.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi1455502, 1 interactor
DIPiDIP-48928N
STRINGi7460.GB10355-PA

Structurei

Secondary structure

170
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi45 – 53Combined sources9
Helixi55 – 68Combined sources14

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1BH1NMR-A44-69[»]
2MLTX-ray2.00A/B44-69[»]
2MW6NMR-A44-69[»]
3QRXX-ray2.20B44-69[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01501
SMRiP01501
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01501

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the melittin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal, Transmembrane

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002116 Melittin/Api_allergen
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF01372 Melittin, 1 hit
ProDomiView protein in ProDom or Entries sharing at least one domain
PD014636 Melittin/Api_allergen, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01501-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKFLVNVALV FMVVYISYIY AAPEPEPAPE PEAEADAEAD PEAGIGAVLK
60 70
VLTTGLPALI SWIKRKRQQG
Length:70
Mass (Da):7,585
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i607F52C091C23BB6
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural varianti53T → S in melittin-S. 1
Natural varianti64K → S in melittin-2; possibly an artifact. 1
Natural varianti67 – 70RQQG → KRQQ in melittin-2; possibly an artifact. 4

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X02007 mRNA Translation: CAA26038.1
PIRiA91133 MPHB1
RefSeqiNP_001011607.1, NM_001011607.1
UniGeneiAme.1212

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiGB44112-RA; GB44112-PA; GB44112
GeneIDi406130
KEGGiame:406130

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiMEL_APIME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01501
Secondary accession number(s): P01503
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: April 25, 2018
This is version 133 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Allergens
    Nomenclature of allergens and list of entries
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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