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Protein

Delta-hexatoxin-Ar1a

Gene
N/A
Organism
Atrax robustus (Sydney funnel-web spider)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 3 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) by binding to site 3. It slows the inactivation, causes a prolongation of action potential duration resulting in repetitive firing in autonomic and motor nerve fibers. Does not depolarize the resting potential. Does not affect tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels. This lethal neurotoxin is active on both insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels.4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ion channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated sodium channel impairing toxin

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Delta-hexatoxin-Ar1a
Short name:
Delta-HXTX-Ar1a
Alternative name(s):
Delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a
Short name:
Delta-AcTx-Ar1
Short name:
Delta-AcTx-Ar1a
Robustoxin
Short name:
RBX
OrganismiAtrax robustus (Sydney funnel-web spider)
Taxonomic identifieri6903 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaChelicerataArachnidaAraneaeMygalomorphaeHexathelidaeAtrax

Organism-specific databases

ArachnoServeriAS000305. delta-hexatoxin-Ar1a.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 4242Delta-hexatoxin-Ar1aPRO_0000087653Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi1 ↔ 15
Disulfide bondi8 ↔ 20
Disulfide bondi14 ↔ 31
Disulfide bondi16 ↔ 42

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed by the venom gland.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
42
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Beta strandi19 – 213Combined sources
Beta strandi30 – 334Combined sources
Turni37 – 393Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1QDPNMR-A1-42[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01478.
SMRiP01478. Positions 1-42.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01478.

Family & Domainsi

Domaini

The presence of a 'disulfide through disulfide knot' structurally defines this protein as a knottin.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the delta-atracotoxin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Knottin

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008017. Atracotoxin_delta.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05353. Atracotoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProDomiPD026455. Atracotoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
PROSITEiPS60018. DELTA_ACTX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

P01478-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40 
CAKKRNWCGK NEDCCCPMKC IYAWYNQQGS CQTTITGLFK KC
Length:42
Mass (Da):4,857
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i093CF5D89540E284
GO

Mass spectrometryi

Molecular mass is 4848.7 Da from positions 1 - 42. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication

Sequence databases

PIRiA01738. NTIIRF.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

PIRiA01738. NTIIRF.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1QDPNMR-A1-42[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01478.
SMRiP01478. Positions 1-42.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Organism-specific databases

ArachnoServeriAS000305. delta-hexatoxin-Ar1a.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01478.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008017. Atracotoxin_delta.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF05353. Atracotoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProDomiPD026455. Atracotoxin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view] [Entries sharing at least one domain]
PROSITEiPS60018. DELTA_ACTX. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Complete amino acid sequence of a new type of lethal neurotoxin from the venom of the funnel-web spider Atrax robustus."
    Sheumack D.D., Claassens R., Whiteley N.M., Howden M.E.H.
    FEBS Lett. 181:154-156(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE.
  2. "Actions of robustoxin, a neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), in anaesthetized monkeys."
    Mylecharane E.J., Spence I., Sheumack D.D., Claassens R., Howden M.E.
    Toxicon 27:481-492(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  3. "Synthesis and characterization of delta-atracotoxin-Ar1a, the lethal neurotoxin from venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus)."
    Alewood D., Birinyi-Strachan L.C., Pallaghy P.K., Norton R.S., Nicholson G.M., Alewood P.F.
    Biochemistry 42:12933-12940(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CHARACTERIZATION, MASS SPECTROMETRY, SYNTHESIS.
  4. "Delta-atracotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders compete with scorpion alpha-toxin binding on both rat brain and insect sodium channels."
    Little M.J., Wilson H., Zappia C., Cestele S., Tyler M.I., Martin-Eauclaire M.-F., Gordon D., Nicholson G.M.
    FEBS Lett. 439:246-252(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  5. "Characterisation of the effects of robustoxin, the lethal neurotoxin from the Sydney funnel-web spider Atrax robustus, on sodium channel activation and inactivation."
    Nicholson G.M., Walsh R., Little M.J., Tyler M.I.
    Pflugers Arch. 436:117-126(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
    Tissue: Venom.
  6. "Solution structure of robustoxin, the lethal neurotoxin from the funnel-web spider Atrax robustus."
    Pallaghy P.K., Alewood D., Alewood P.F., Norton R.S.
    FEBS Lett. 419:191-196(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR, DISULFIDE BONDS.
  7. "1H NMR study of robustoxin, the lethal neurotoxin from the funnel web spider Atrax robustus."
    Temple M.D., Hinds M.G., Sheumack D.D., Howden M.E., Norton R.S.
    Toxicon 37:485-506(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR, DISULFIDE BONDS.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTXDT1_ATRRO
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01478
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 89 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programAnimal Toxin Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

In this species, the venom of the male is lethal rather than that of the female.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Direct protein sequencing

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.