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Protein

Gastrin

Gene

GAST

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • hormone activity Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

  • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • response to food Source: GO_Central
  • signal transduction Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-HSA-881907. Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK.
SIGNORiP01350.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Gastrin
Cleaved into the following 6 chains:
Alternative name(s):
Gastrin component I
Gastrin-52
Short name:
G52
Alternative name(s):
Gastrin component II
Gastrin-34
Short name:
G34
Alternative name(s):
Gastrin component III
Gastrin-17
Short name:
G17
Gastrin-14
Short name:
G14
Gastrin-6
Short name:
G6
Gene namesi
Name:GAST
Synonyms:GAS
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4164. GAST.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi86 – 861A → D: Small increase in ratio of gastrin-17 versus gastrin-34 production. No change in ratio of gastrin-17 versus gastrin-34 production; when associated with F-87. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi87 – 871Y → F: Small decrease in ratio of gastrin-17 versus gastrin-34 production. No change in ratio of gastrin-17 versus gastrin-34 production; when associated with D-86. 1 Publication

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28577.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAST.
DMDMi120952.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 21211 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Peptidei22 – 9271Gastrin-71PRO_0000010633Add
BLAST
Peptidei41 – 9252Gastrin-52PRO_0000010634Add
BLAST
Peptidei59 – 9234Big gastrinPRO_0000010635Add
BLAST
Peptidei76 – 9217GastrinPRO_0000010636Add
BLAST
Peptidei79 – 9214Gastrin-14PRO_0000010637Add
BLAST
Peptidei87 – 926Gastrin-6PRO_0000010638
Propeptidei96 – 1016Removed in mature formPRO_0000010639

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei59 – 591Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid; in form big gastrin1 Publication
Modified residuei76 – 761Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid; in form gastrin1 Publication
Modified residuei87 – 871Sulfotyrosine; partial2 Publications
Modified residuei92 – 921Phenylalanine amide1 Publication
Modified residuei96 – 961Phosphoserine1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

Two different processing pathways probably exist in antral G-cells. In the dominant pathway progastrin is cleaved at three sites resulting in two major bioactive gastrins, gastrin-34 and gastrin-17. In the putative alternative pathway, progastrin may be processed only at the most C-terminal dibasic site resulting in the synthesis of gastrin-71.
Sulfation enhances proteolytic processing, and blocks peptide degradation. Levels of sulfation differ between proteolytically-cleaved gastrins. Thus, gastrin-6 is almost 73% sulfated, whereas the larger gastrins are less than 50% sulfated. Sulfation levels are also tissue-specific.3 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei40 – 412Cleavage
Sitei58 – 592Cleavage
Sitei75 – 762Cleavage
Sitei95 – 962Cleavage

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein, Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, Sulfation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01350.
PeptideAtlasiP01350.
PRIDEiP01350.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP01350.
PhosphoSiteiP01350.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBP01350.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000184502.
CleanExiHS_GAST.
ExpressionAtlasiP01350. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP01350. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiCAB000038.

Interactioni

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
TFP027875EBI-3436637,EBI-714319

GO - Molecular functioni

  • hormone activity Source: ProtInc

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108796. 11 interactions.
DIPiDIP-403N.
IntActiP01350. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-7212817.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000331358.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP01350.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J1ZA. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111D7Y. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014792.
HOGENOMiHOG000073533.
HOVERGENiHBG097593.
InParanoidiP01350.
KOiK13768.
OMAiKKQGPWM.
OrthoDBiEOG091G147Z.
PhylomeDBiP01350.
TreeFamiTF336994.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001651. Gastrin.
IPR013152. Gastrin/cholecystokinin_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00918. Gastrin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00259. GASTRIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01350-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MQRLCVYVLI FALALAAFSE ASWKPRSQQP DAPLGTGANR DLELPWLEQQ
60 70 80 90 100
GPASHHRRQL GPQGPPHLVA DPSKKQGPWL EEEEEAYGWM DFGRRSAEDE

N
Length:101
Mass (Da):11,394
Last modified:October 23, 1986 - v1
Checksum:iA03C847FCFE7216C
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti3 – 31R → P.
Corresponds to variant rs34309618 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049127

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25005.1.
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25006.1.
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25007.1.
V00511 mRNA. Translation: CAA23769.1.
M15958 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52520.1.
K01254 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59533.1.
BC069724 mRNA. Translation: AAH69724.1.
BC069762 mRNA. Translation: AAH69762.1.
CCDSiCCDS11404.1.
PIRiA93997. GMHUB.
RefSeqiNP_000796.1. NM_000805.4.
UniGeneiHs.2681.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000329402; ENSP00000331358; ENSG00000184502.
GeneIDi2520.
KEGGihsa:2520.
UCSCiuc002hxl.3. human.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Gastrin entry

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25005.1.
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25006.1.
X00183 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA25007.1.
V00511 mRNA. Translation: CAA23769.1.
M15958 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52520.1.
K01254 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB59533.1.
BC069724 mRNA. Translation: AAH69724.1.
BC069762 mRNA. Translation: AAH69762.1.
CCDSiCCDS11404.1.
PIRiA93997. GMHUB.
RefSeqiNP_000796.1. NM_000805.4.
UniGeneiHs.2681.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP01350.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108796. 11 interactions.
DIPiDIP-403N.
IntActiP01350. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-7212817.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000331358.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiP01350.
PhosphoSiteiP01350.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGAST.
DMDMi120952.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01350.
PeptideAtlasiP01350.
PRIDEiP01350.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2520.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000329402; ENSP00000331358; ENSG00000184502.
GeneIDi2520.
KEGGihsa:2520.
UCSCiuc002hxl.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2520.
GeneCardsiGAST.
HGNCiHGNC:4164. GAST.
HPAiCAB000038.
MIMi137250. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P01350.
PharmGKBiPA28577.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J1ZA. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111D7Y. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014792.
HOGENOMiHOG000073533.
HOVERGENiHBG097593.
InParanoidiP01350.
KOiK13768.
OMAiKKQGPWM.
OrthoDBiEOG091G147Z.
PhylomeDBiP01350.
TreeFamiTF336994.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-HSA-881907. Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK.
SIGNORiP01350.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiGastrin.
GenomeRNAii2520.
PMAP-CutDBP01350.
PROiP01350.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000184502.
CleanExiHS_GAST.
ExpressionAtlasiP01350. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiP01350. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001651. Gastrin.
IPR013152. Gastrin/cholecystokinin_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00918. Gastrin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00259. GASTRIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGAST_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01350
Secondary accession number(s): P78463, P78464
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: October 23, 1986
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 157 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.