Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Basket 0
(max 400 entries)x

Your basket is currently empty.

Select item(s) and click on "Add to basket" to create your own collection here
(400 entries max)

P01308

- INS_HUMAN

UniProt

P01308 - INS_HUMAN

Protein

Insulin

Gene

INS

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
  1. Functioni

    Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
    2. identical protein binding Source: IntAct
    3. insulin-like growth factor receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL
    4. insulin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
    5. protease binding Source: UniProtKB
    6. protein binding Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. activation of protein kinase B activity Source: BHF-UCL
    2. acute-phase response Source: BHF-UCL
    3. alpha-beta T cell activation Source: UniProtKB
    4. cell-cell signaling Source: UniProtKB
    5. cellular protein metabolic process Source: Reactome
    6. endocrine pancreas development Source: Reactome
    7. energy reserve metabolic process Source: Reactome
    8. fatty acid homeostasis Source: BHF-UCL
    9. glucose homeostasis Source: BHF-UCL
    10. glucose metabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
    11. glucose transport Source: UniProtKB
    12. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    13. insulin receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
    14. MAPK cascade Source: BHF-UCL
    15. negative regulation of acute inflammatory response Source: BHF-UCL
    16. negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    17. negative regulation of feeding behavior Source: DFLAT
    18. negative regulation of gluconeogenesis Source: BHF-UCL
    19. negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    20. negative regulation of lipid catabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    21. negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity Source: BHF-UCL
    22. negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    23. negative regulation of protein catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    24. negative regulation of protein oligomerization Source: UniProtKB
    25. negative regulation of protein secretion Source: BHF-UCL
    26. negative regulation of proteolysis Source: BHF-UCL
    27. negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response Source: BHF-UCL
    28. negative regulation of vasodilation Source: UniProtKB
    29. positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation Source: BHF-UCL
    30. positive regulation of cell differentiation Source: BHF-UCL
    31. positive regulation of cell growth Source: BHF-UCL
    32. positive regulation of cell migration Source: BHF-UCL
    33. positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: BHF-UCL
    34. positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    35. positive regulation of cytokine secretion Source: UniProtKB
    36. positive regulation of DNA replication Source: BHF-UCL
    37. positive regulation of glucose import Source: BHF-UCL
    38. positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
    39. positive regulation of glycolytic process Source: BHF-UCL
    40. positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
    41. positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
    42. positive regulation of MAPK cascade Source: BHF-UCL
    43. positive regulation of mitosis Source: UniProtKB
    44. positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity Source: BHF-UCL
    45. positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    46. positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity Source: UniProtKB
    47. positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion Source: BHF-UCL
    48. positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation Source: BHF-UCL
    49. positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling Source: BHF-UCL
    50. positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation Source: BHF-UCL
    51. positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling Source: BHF-UCL
    52. positive regulation of respiratory burst Source: BHF-UCL
    53. positive regulation of vasodilation Source: UniProtKB
    54. regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process Source: BHF-UCL
    55. regulation of insulin secretion Source: Reactome
    56. regulation of protein localization Source: BHF-UCL
    57. regulation of protein secretion Source: UniProtKB
    58. regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: BHF-UCL
    59. regulation of transmembrane transporter activity Source: BHF-UCL
    60. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
    61. wound healing Source: BHF-UCL

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hormone

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Carbohydrate metabolism, Glucose metabolism

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciMetaCyc:MONOMER-16190.
    ReactomeiREACT_1109. Insulin receptor recycling.
    REACT_13819. Regulation of gene expression in beta cells.
    REACT_15550. Insulin processing.
    REACT_1661. SHC activation.
    REACT_18325. Regulation of insulin secretion.
    REACT_19189. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
    REACT_498. Signaling by Insulin receptor.
    REACT_508. Signal attenuation.
    REACT_570. IRS activation.
    SignaLinkiP01308.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Insulin
    Cleaved into the following 2 chains:
    Gene namesi
    Name:INS
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 11

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:6081. INS.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. endoplasmic reticulum lumen Source: Reactome
    2. endosome lumen Source: Reactome
    3. extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
    4. extracellular space Source: BHF-UCL
    5. Golgi lumen Source: Reactome
    6. secretory granule lumen Source: Reactome

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Involvement in diseasei

    Hyperproinsulinemia, familial (FHPRI) [MIM:176730]: An autosomal dominant condition characterized by elevated levels of serum proinsulin-like material.4 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti34 – 341H → D in FHPRI; Providence. 1 Publication
    VAR_003971
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → H in FHPRI; impairs posttranslational cleavage. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs28933985 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_003974
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → L in FHPRI; Kyoto. 1 Publication
    VAR_003975
    Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.1 Publication
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti55 – 551R → C in IDDM2. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908261 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063732
    Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]: A rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.2 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti24 – 241A → D in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356663 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063723
    Natural varianti29 – 291H → D in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908272 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063724
    Natural varianti32 – 321G → R in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356664 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063725
    Natural varianti32 – 321G → S in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356664 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063726
    Natural varianti35 – 351L → P in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908273 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063727
    Natural varianti43 – 431C → G in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356666 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063728
    Natural varianti47 – 471G → V in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356667 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063730
    Natural varianti48 – 481F → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356668 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063731
    Natural varianti84 – 841G → R in PNDM; uncertain pathological significance. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908274 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063734
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356669 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063735
    Natural varianti90 – 901G → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356670 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063736
    Natural varianti96 – 961C → S in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs80356671 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063737
    Natural varianti96 – 961C → Y in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356671 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063738
    Natural varianti101 – 1011S → C in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908276 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063739
    Natural varianti103 – 1031Y → C in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908277 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063740
    Natural varianti108 – 1081Y → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356672 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063741
    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]: A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.3 Publications
    Note: The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti6 – 61R → C in MODY10. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908278 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063721
    Natural varianti6 – 61R → H in MODY10. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908259 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063722
    Natural varianti46 – 461R → Q in MODY10. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs121908260 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063729

    Pharmaceutical usei

    Available under the names Humulin or Humalog (Eli Lilly) and Novolin (Novo Nordisk). Used in the treatment of diabetes. Humalog is an insulin analog with 52-Lys-Pro-53 instead of 52-Pro-Lys-53.

    Keywords - Diseasei

    Diabetes mellitus, Disease mutation

    Organism-specific databases

    MIMi125852. phenotype.
    176730. gene+phenotype.
    606176. phenotype.
    613370. phenotype.
    Orphaneti552. MODY syndrome.
    99885. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus.
    PharmGKBiPA201.

    Protein family/group databases

    Allergomei2121. Hom s Insulin.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 24241 PublicationAdd
    BLAST
    Peptidei25 – 5430Insulin B chainPRO_0000015819Add
    BLAST
    Propeptidei57 – 8731C peptidePRO_0000015820Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei90 – 11021Insulin A chainPRO_0000015821Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi31 ↔ 96Interchain (between B and A chains)
    Disulfide bondi43 ↔ 109Interchain (between B and A chains)
    Disulfide bondi95 ↔ 1001 Publication

    Keywords - PTMi

    Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiP01308.
    PeptideAtlasiP01308.
    PRIDEiP01308.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiP01308.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PMAP-CutDBP01308.

    Expressioni

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiP01308.
    BgeeiP01308.
    GenevestigatoriP01308.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiCAB000048.
    CAB012098.
    CAB053843.
    HPA004932.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds.

    Binary interactionsi

    WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
    itself16EBI-7090529,EBI-7090529

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi109842. 10 interactions.
    DIPiDIP-6024N.
    IntActiP01308. 3 interactions.
    MINTiMINT-106847.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000348986.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    110
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Beta strandi26 – 294
    Helixi33 – 4311
    Helixi44 – 463
    Beta strandi48 – 503
    Turni59 – 668
    Beta strandi74 – 763
    Helixi79 – 813
    Turni84 – 863
    Helixi91 – 977
    Beta strandi98 – 1014
    Helixi102 – 1065
    Turni107 – 1093

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1A7FNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    1AI0NMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1AIYNMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1B9EX-ray2.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1BENX-ray1.40A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1EFENMR-A25-54[»]
    A90-110[»]
    1EV3X-ray1.78A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1EV6X-ray1.90A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1EVRX-ray1.90A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1FU2X-ray3.24A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-54[»]
    1FUBX-ray3.09A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1G7AX-ray1.20A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-54[»]
    1G7BX-ray1.30A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-54[»]
    1GUJX-ray1.62A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1HIQNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1HISNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-49[»]
    1HITNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1HLSNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1HTVX-ray1.90A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-51[»]
    1HUINMR-A90-110[»]
    B26-53[»]
    1IOGNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    1IOHNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    1J73X-ray2.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1JCAX-ray2.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1JCONMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1JK8X-ray2.40C35-47[»]
    1K3MNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1KMFNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1LKQNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1LPHX-ray2.30A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1MHINMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1MHJNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1MSOX-ray1.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1OS3X-ray1.95A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1OS4X-ray2.25A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1Q4VX-ray2.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1QIYX-ray2.30A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1QIZX-ray2.00A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1QJ0X-ray2.40A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1RWEX-ray1.80A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1SF1NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1SJTNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-51[»]
    1SJUNMR-A25-110[»]
    1T0CNMR-A57-87[»]
    1T1KNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1T1PNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1T1QNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1TRZX-ray1.60A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1TYLX-ray1.90A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1TYMX-ray1.90A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1UZ9X-ray1.60A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    1VKTNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1W8PX-ray2.08A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    1XDAX-ray1.80A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-53[»]
    1XGLNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    1XW7X-ray2.30A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1ZEGX-ray1.60A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1ZEHX-ray1.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    1ZNJX-ray2.00A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2AIYNMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2C8QX-ray1.95A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    2C8RX-ray1.50A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    2CEUX-ray1.80A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-49[»]
    2G54X-ray2.25C/D25-54[»]
    2G56X-ray2.20C/D25-54[»]
    2H67NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2HH4NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2HHONMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2HIUNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JMNNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JUMNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JUUNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JUVNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JV1NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2JZQNMR-A25-54[»]
    A90-110[»]
    2K91NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2K9RNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2KJJNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2KJUNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2KQPNMR-A25-110[»]
    2KQQNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2KXKNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2L1YNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2L1ZNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2LGBNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-55[»]
    2LWZNMR-A25-54[»]
    A89-110[»]
    2M1DNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2M1ENMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2M2MNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2M2NNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2M2ONMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2M2PNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2MPGNMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2OLYX-ray1.70A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2OLZX-ray1.70A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2OM0X-ray2.051/3/A/C/E/G/I/K/Q/S/U/X/a/c/e/g/i/k90-110[»]
    2/4/B/D/F/H/J/L/R/T/V/Y/b/d/f/h/j/l25-54[»]
    2OM1X-ray1.971/3/A/C/E/G/I/K/Q/S/U/X/a/c/e/g/i/k90-110[»]
    2/4/B/D/F/H/J/L/R/T/V/Y/b/d/f/h/j/l25-54[»]
    2OMGX-ray1.52A/C/E90-110[»]
    B/D/F25-54[»]
    2OMHX-ray1.36A/C/E90-110[»]
    B/D/F25-54[»]
    2OMIX-ray2.24A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2QIUX-ray2.00A/C89-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2R34X-ray2.25A/C89-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2R35X-ray2.08A/C89-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2R36X-ray2.00A/C89-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2RN5NMR-A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2VJZX-ray1.80A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2VK0X-ray2.20A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2W44X-ray2.00A/C/E94-110[»]
    B/D/F25-53[»]
    2WBYX-ray2.60C/E90-109[»]
    D/F25-43[»]
    2WC0X-ray2.80C/E90-110[»]
    D/F25-54[»]
    2WRUX-ray1.57A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    2WRVX-ray2.15A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    2WRWX-ray2.41A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    2WRXX-ray1.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    2WS0X-ray2.10A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2WS1X-ray1.60A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    2WS4X-ray1.90A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    2WS6X-ray1.50A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    2WS7X-ray2.59A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-50[»]
    3AIYNMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    3BRRX-ray1.70A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-53[»]
    3BXQX-ray1.30A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3E7YX-ray1.60A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-53[»]
    3E7ZX-ray1.70A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-53[»]
    3EXXX-ray1.35A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3FQ9X-ray1.35A/C91-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3HYDX-ray1.00A35-41[»]
    3I3ZX-ray1.60A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    3I40X-ray1.85A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    3ILGX-ray1.90A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3INCX-ray1.85A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3IR0X-ray2.20A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O/R/T/V/X90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L/N/P/S/U/W/Y25-54[»]
    3JSDX-ray2.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3KQ6X-ray1.90A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3P2XX-ray2.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3P33X-ray2.30A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-54[»]
    3Q6EX-ray2.05A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3ROVX-ray2.30A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    3TT8X-ray1.12A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3U4NX-ray1.98A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    3UTQX-ray1.67C15-24[»]
    3UTSX-ray2.71C/H15-24[»]
    3UTTX-ray2.60C/H15-24[»]
    3V19X-ray2.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3V1GX-ray2.20A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3W11X-ray3.90A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    3W12X-ray4.30A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    3W13X-ray4.30A90-110[»]
    B25-50[»]
    3W7YX-ray0.92A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3W7ZX-ray1.15A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    3W80X-ray1.40A/C/E/G90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H25-54[»]
    3ZI3X-ray1.70A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    3ZQRX-ray1.90A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    3ZS2X-ray1.97A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    3ZU1X-ray1.60A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4AIYNMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    4AJXX-ray1.20A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-53[»]
    4AJZX-ray1.80A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-53[»]
    4AK0X-ray2.28A90-110[»]
    B25-53[»]
    4AKJX-ray2.01A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-53[»]
    4CXLX-ray1.50A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    4CXNX-ray1.70A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    4CY7X-ray1.40A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EFXX-ray1.98A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-52[»]
    4EWWX-ray2.30A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EWXX-ray2.20A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EWZX-ray1.79A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EX0X-ray1.86A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EX1X-ray1.66A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EXXX-ray1.55A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EY1X-ray1.47A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EY9X-ray1.47A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EYDX-ray1.47A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EYNX-ray1.53A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4EYPX-ray1.59A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F0NX-ray1.68A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F0OX-ray1.67A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1AX-ray1.80A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1BX-ray1.59A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1CX-ray1.70A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1DX-ray1.64A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1FX-ray1.68A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F1GX-ray1.64A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F4TX-ray1.64A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F4VX-ray1.64A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F51X-ray1.64A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4F8FX-ray1.68A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4FG3X-ray2.00A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4FKAX-ray1.08A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4GBCX-ray1.78A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4GBIX-ray2.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4GBKX-ray2.40A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4GBLX-ray2.50A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4GBNX-ray1.87A/C90-110[»]
    B/D25-54[»]
    4IUZX-ray1.60A90-110[»]
    B25-54[»]
    4IYDX-ray1.66A90-109[»]
    B25-53[»]
    4IYFX-ray1.80A90-109[»]
    B25-53[»]
    5AIYNMR-A/C/E/G/I/K90-110[»]
    B/D/F/H/J/L25-54[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliP01308.
    SMRiP01308. Positions 25-110.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiP01308.

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the insulin family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG45999.
    HOGENOMiHOG000261669.
    HOVERGENiHBG006137.
    KOiK04526.
    OMAiVEQCCHN.
    PhylomeDBiP01308.
    TreeFamiTF332820.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.100.10. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR004825. Insulin.
    IPR016179. Insulin-like.
    IPR022353. Insulin_CS.
    IPR022352. Insulin_family.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00049. Insulin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00277. INSULIN.
    PR00276. INSULINFAMLY.
    SMARTiSM00078. IlGF. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF56994. SSF56994. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequences (2)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform 1 (identifier: P01308-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MALWMRLLPL LALLALWGPD PAAAFVNQHL CGSHLVEALY LVCGERGFFY    50
    TPKTRREAED LQVGQVELGG GPGAGSLQPL ALEGSLQKRG IVEQCCTSIC 100
    SLYQLENYCN 110
    Length:110
    Mass (Da):11,981
    Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
    Checksum:iC2C3B23B85E520E5
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: F8WCM5-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    Also known as: INS-IGF2

    The sequence of this isoform can be found in the external entry F8WCM5.
    Isoforms of the same protein are often annotated in two different entries if their sequences differ significantly.

    Note: Based on a readthrough transcript which may produce an INS-IGF2 fusion protein.

    Length:200
    Mass (Da):21,537
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence AAA59179.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.

    Natural variant

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Natural varianti6 – 61R → C in MODY10. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908278 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063721
    Natural varianti6 – 61R → H in MODY10. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908259 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063722
    Natural varianti24 – 241A → D in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356663 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063723
    Natural varianti29 – 291H → D in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908272 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063724
    Natural varianti32 – 321G → R in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356664 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063725
    Natural varianti32 – 321G → S in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356664 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063726
    Natural varianti34 – 341H → D in FHPRI; Providence. 1 Publication
    VAR_003971
    Natural varianti35 – 351L → P in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908273 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063727
    Natural varianti43 – 431C → G in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356666 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063728
    Natural varianti46 – 461R → Q in MODY10. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs121908260 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063729
    Natural varianti47 – 471G → V in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356667 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063730
    Natural varianti48 – 481F → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356668 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063731
    Natural varianti48 – 481F → S Associated with diabetes mellitus type-II; Los-Angeles. 2 Publications
    VAR_003972
    Natural varianti49 – 491F → L in Chicago. 1 Publication
    VAR_003973
    Natural varianti55 – 551R → C in IDDM2. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908261 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063732
    Natural varianti68 – 681L → M.1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908279 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063733
    Natural varianti84 – 841G → R in PNDM; uncertain pathological significance. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908274 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063734
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356669 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063735
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → H in FHPRI; impairs posttranslational cleavage. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs28933985 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_003974
    Natural varianti89 – 891R → L in FHPRI; Kyoto. 1 Publication
    VAR_003975
    Natural varianti90 – 901G → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356670 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063736
    Natural varianti92 – 921V → L in Wakayama. 1 Publication
    VAR_003976
    Natural varianti96 – 961C → S in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs80356671 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063737
    Natural varianti96 – 961C → Y in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356671 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063738
    Natural varianti101 – 1011S → C in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908276 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063739
    Natural varianti103 – 1031Y → C in PNDM. 1 Publication
    Corresponds to variant rs121908277 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063740
    Natural varianti108 – 1081Y → C in PNDM. 2 Publications
    Corresponds to variant rs80356672 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
    VAR_063741

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    V00565 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA23828.1.
    M10039 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59173.1.
    J00265 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59172.1.
    X70508 mRNA. Translation: CAA49913.1.
    L15440 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59179.1. Sequence problems.
    AY899304 mRNA. Translation: AAW83741.1.
    AY138590 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN39451.1.
    BT006808 mRNA. Translation: AAP35454.1.
    CH471158 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX02488.1.
    BC005255 mRNA. Translation: AAH05255.1.
    AJ009655 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA08766.1.
    CCDSiCCDS7729.1. [P01308-1]
    PIRiA93222. IPHU.
    RefSeqiNP_000198.1. NM_000207.2. [P01308-1]
    NP_001172026.1. NM_001185097.1. [P01308-1]
    NP_001172027.1. NM_001185098.1. [P01308-1]
    NP_001278826.1. NM_001291897.1. [P01308-1]
    UniGeneiHs.272259.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000250971; ENSP00000250971; ENSG00000254647. [P01308-1]
    ENST00000381330; ENSP00000370731; ENSG00000254647. [P01308-1]
    ENST00000397262; ENSP00000380432; ENSG00000254647. [P01308-1]
    GeneIDi3630.
    KEGGihsa:3630.
    UCSCiuc001lvn.2. human. [P01308-1]

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi124617.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

    Cross-referencesi

    Web resourcesi

    Insulin at Eli Lilly

    Clinical information on Eli Lilly insulin products

    Protein Spotlight

    Protein of the 20th century - Issue 9 of April 2001

    Wikipedia

    Insulin entry

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    V00565 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA23828.1 .
    M10039 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59173.1 .
    J00265 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59172.1 .
    X70508 mRNA. Translation: CAA49913.1 .
    L15440 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA59179.1 . Sequence problems.
    AY899304 mRNA. Translation: AAW83741.1 .
    AY138590 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAN39451.1 .
    BT006808 mRNA. Translation: AAP35454.1 .
    CH471158 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX02488.1 .
    BC005255 mRNA. Translation: AAH05255.1 .
    AJ009655 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAA08766.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS7729.1. [P01308-1 ]
    PIRi A93222. IPHU.
    RefSeqi NP_000198.1. NM_000207.2. [P01308-1 ]
    NP_001172026.1. NM_001185097.1. [P01308-1 ]
    NP_001172027.1. NM_001185098.1. [P01308-1 ]
    NP_001278826.1. NM_001291897.1. [P01308-1 ]
    UniGenei Hs.272259.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    1A7F NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    1AI0 NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1AIY NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1B9E X-ray 2.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1BEN X-ray 1.40 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1EFE NMR - A 25-54 [» ]
    A 90-110 [» ]
    1EV3 X-ray 1.78 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1EV6 X-ray 1.90 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1EVR X-ray 1.90 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1FU2 X-ray 3.24 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-54 [» ]
    1FUB X-ray 3.09 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1G7A X-ray 1.20 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-54 [» ]
    1G7B X-ray 1.30 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-54 [» ]
    1GUJ X-ray 1.62 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1HIQ NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1HIS NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-49 [» ]
    1HIT NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1HLS NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1HTV X-ray 1.90 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-51 [» ]
    1HUI NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 26-53 [» ]
    1IOG NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    1IOH NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    1J73 X-ray 2.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1JCA X-ray 2.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1JCO NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1JK8 X-ray 2.40 C 35-47 [» ]
    1K3M NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1KMF NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1LKQ NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1LPH X-ray 2.30 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1MHI NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1MHJ NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1MSO X-ray 1.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1OS3 X-ray 1.95 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1OS4 X-ray 2.25 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1Q4V X-ray 2.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1QIY X-ray 2.30 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1QIZ X-ray 2.00 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1QJ0 X-ray 2.40 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1RWE X-ray 1.80 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1SF1 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1SJT NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-51 [» ]
    1SJU NMR - A 25-110 [» ]
    1T0C NMR - A 57-87 [» ]
    1T1K NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1T1P NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1T1Q NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1TRZ X-ray 1.60 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1TYL X-ray 1.90 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1TYM X-ray 1.90 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1UZ9 X-ray 1.60 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    1VKT NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1W8P X-ray 2.08 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    1XDA X-ray 1.80 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-53 [» ]
    1XGL NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    1XW7 X-ray 2.30 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1ZEG X-ray 1.60 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1ZEH X-ray 1.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    1ZNJ X-ray 2.00 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2AIY NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2C8Q X-ray 1.95 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    2C8R X-ray 1.50 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    2CEU X-ray 1.80 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-49 [» ]
    2G54 X-ray 2.25 C/D 25-54 [» ]
    2G56 X-ray 2.20 C/D 25-54 [» ]
    2H67 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2HH4 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2HHO NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2HIU NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JMN NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JUM NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JUU NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JUV NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JV1 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2JZQ NMR - A 25-54 [» ]
    A 90-110 [» ]
    2K91 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2K9R NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2KJJ NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2KJU NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2KQP NMR - A 25-110 [» ]
    2KQQ NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2KXK NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2L1Y NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2L1Z NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2LGB NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-55 [» ]
    2LWZ NMR - A 25-54 [» ]
    A 89-110 [» ]
    2M1D NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2M1E NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2M2M NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2M2N NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2M2O NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2M2P NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2MPG NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2OLY X-ray 1.70 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2OLZ X-ray 1.70 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2OM0 X-ray 2.05 1/3/A/C/E/G/I/K/Q/S/U/X/a/c/e/g/i/k 90-110 [» ]
    2/4/B/D/F/H/J/L/R/T/V/Y/b/d/f/h/j/l 25-54 [» ]
    2OM1 X-ray 1.97 1/3/A/C/E/G/I/K/Q/S/U/X/a/c/e/g/i/k 90-110 [» ]
    2/4/B/D/F/H/J/L/R/T/V/Y/b/d/f/h/j/l 25-54 [» ]
    2OMG X-ray 1.52 A/C/E 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F 25-54 [» ]
    2OMH X-ray 1.36 A/C/E 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F 25-54 [» ]
    2OMI X-ray 2.24 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2QIU X-ray 2.00 A/C 89-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2R34 X-ray 2.25 A/C 89-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2R35 X-ray 2.08 A/C 89-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2R36 X-ray 2.00 A/C 89-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2RN5 NMR - A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2VJZ X-ray 1.80 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2VK0 X-ray 2.20 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2W44 X-ray 2.00 A/C/E 94-110 [» ]
    B/D/F 25-53 [» ]
    2WBY X-ray 2.60 C/E 90-109 [» ]
    D/F 25-43 [» ]
    2WC0 X-ray 2.80 C/E 90-110 [» ]
    D/F 25-54 [» ]
    2WRU X-ray 1.57 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    2WRV X-ray 2.15 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    2WRW X-ray 2.41 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    2WRX X-ray 1.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    2WS0 X-ray 2.10 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2WS1 X-ray 1.60 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    2WS4 X-ray 1.90 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    2WS6 X-ray 1.50 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    2WS7 X-ray 2.59 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-50 [» ]
    3AIY NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    3BRR X-ray 1.70 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-53 [» ]
    3BXQ X-ray 1.30 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3E7Y X-ray 1.60 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-53 [» ]
    3E7Z X-ray 1.70 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-53 [» ]
    3EXX X-ray 1.35 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3FQ9 X-ray 1.35 A/C 91-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3HYD X-ray 1.00 A 35-41 [» ]
    3I3Z X-ray 1.60 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    3I40 X-ray 1.85 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    3ILG X-ray 1.90 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3INC X-ray 1.85 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3IR0 X-ray 2.20 A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O/R/T/V/X 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L/N/P/S/U/W/Y 25-54 [» ]
    3JSD X-ray 2.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3KQ6 X-ray 1.90 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3P2X X-ray 2.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3P33 X-ray 2.30 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-54 [» ]
    3Q6E X-ray 2.05 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3ROV X-ray 2.30 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    3TT8 X-ray 1.12 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3U4N X-ray 1.98 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    3UTQ X-ray 1.67 C 15-24 [» ]
    3UTS X-ray 2.71 C/H 15-24 [» ]
    3UTT X-ray 2.60 C/H 15-24 [» ]
    3V19 X-ray 2.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3V1G X-ray 2.20 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3W11 X-ray 3.90 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    3W12 X-ray 4.30 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    3W13 X-ray 4.30 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-50 [» ]
    3W7Y X-ray 0.92 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3W7Z X-ray 1.15 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    3W80 X-ray 1.40 A/C/E/G 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H 25-54 [» ]
    3ZI3 X-ray 1.70 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    3ZQR X-ray 1.90 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    3ZS2 X-ray 1.97 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    3ZU1 X-ray 1.60 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4AIY NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    4AJX X-ray 1.20 A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-53 [» ]
    4AJZ X-ray 1.80 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-53 [» ]
    4AK0 X-ray 2.28 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    4AKJ X-ray 2.01 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-53 [» ]
    4CXL X-ray 1.50 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    4CXN X-ray 1.70 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    4CY7 X-ray 1.40 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EFX X-ray 1.98 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-52 [» ]
    4EWW X-ray 2.30 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EWX X-ray 2.20 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EWZ X-ray 1.79 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EX0 X-ray 1.86 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EX1 X-ray 1.66 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EXX X-ray 1.55 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EY1 X-ray 1.47 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EY9 X-ray 1.47 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EYD X-ray 1.47 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EYN X-ray 1.53 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4EYP X-ray 1.59 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F0N X-ray 1.68 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F0O X-ray 1.67 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1A X-ray 1.80 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1B X-ray 1.59 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1C X-ray 1.70 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1D X-ray 1.64 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1F X-ray 1.68 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F1G X-ray 1.64 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F4T X-ray 1.64 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F4V X-ray 1.64 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F51 X-ray 1.64 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4F8F X-ray 1.68 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4FG3 X-ray 2.00 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4FKA X-ray 1.08 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4GBC X-ray 1.78 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4GBI X-ray 2.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4GBK X-ray 2.40 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4GBL X-ray 2.50 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4GBN X-ray 1.87 A/C 90-110 [» ]
    B/D 25-54 [» ]
    4IUZ X-ray 1.60 A 90-110 [» ]
    B 25-54 [» ]
    4IYD X-ray 1.66 A 90-109 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    4IYF X-ray 1.80 A 90-109 [» ]
    B 25-53 [» ]
    5AIY NMR - A/C/E/G/I/K 90-110 [» ]
    B/D/F/H/J/L 25-54 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali P01308.
    SMRi P01308. Positions 25-110.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 109842. 10 interactions.
    DIPi DIP-6024N.
    IntActi P01308. 3 interactions.
    MINTi MINT-106847.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000348986.

    Chemistry

    ChEMBLi CHEMBL5881.

    Protein family/group databases

    Allergomei 2121. Hom s Insulin.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei P01308.

    Polymorphism databases

    DMDMi 124617.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbi P01308.
    PeptideAtlasi P01308.
    PRIDEi P01308.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 3630.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000250971 ; ENSP00000250971 ; ENSG00000254647 . [P01308-1 ]
    ENST00000381330 ; ENSP00000370731 ; ENSG00000254647 . [P01308-1 ]
    ENST00000397262 ; ENSP00000380432 ; ENSG00000254647 . [P01308-1 ]
    GeneIDi 3630.
    KEGGi hsa:3630.
    UCSCi uc001lvn.2. human. [P01308-1 ]

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 3630.
    GeneCardsi GC11M002181.
    GeneReviewsi INS.
    HGNCi HGNC:6081. INS.
    HPAi CAB000048.
    CAB012098.
    CAB053843.
    HPA004932.
    MIMi 125852. phenotype.
    176730. gene+phenotype.
    606176. phenotype.
    613370. phenotype.
    neXtProti NX_P01308.
    Orphaneti 552. MODY syndrome.
    99885. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus.
    PharmGKBi PA201.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG45999.
    HOGENOMi HOG000261669.
    HOVERGENi HBG006137.
    KOi K04526.
    OMAi VEQCCHN.
    PhylomeDBi P01308.
    TreeFami TF332820.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyci MetaCyc:MONOMER-16190.
    Reactomei REACT_1109. Insulin receptor recycling.
    REACT_13819. Regulation of gene expression in beta cells.
    REACT_15550. Insulin processing.
    REACT_1661. SHC activation.
    REACT_18325. Regulation of insulin secretion.
    REACT_19189. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
    REACT_498. Signaling by Insulin receptor.
    REACT_508. Signal attenuation.
    REACT_570. IRS activation.
    SignaLinki P01308.

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTracei P01308.
    GeneWikii Insulin.
    GenomeRNAii 3630.
    NextBioi 14203.
    PMAP-CutDB P01308.
    PROi P01308.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi P01308.
    Bgeei P01308.
    Genevestigatori P01308.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 1.10.100.10. 2 hits.
    InterProi IPR004825. Insulin.
    IPR016179. Insulin-like.
    IPR022353. Insulin_CS.
    IPR022352. Insulin_family.
    [Graphical view ]
    Pfami PF00049. Insulin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00277. INSULIN.
    PR00276. INSULINFAMLY.
    SMARTi SM00078. IlGF. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF56994. SSF56994. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS00262. INSULIN. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    2. "Genetic variation in the human insulin gene."
      Ullrich A., Dull T.J., Gray A., Brosius J., Sures I.
      Science 209:612-615(1980) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    3. "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding human preproinsulin."
      Bell G.I., Swain W.F., Pictet R.L., Cordell B., Goodman H.M., Rutter W.J.
      Nature 282:525-527(1979) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    4. "Nucleotide sequence of human preproinsulin complementary DNA."
      Sures I., Goeddel D.V., Gray A., Ullrich A.
      Science 208:57-59(1980) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    5. "Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR."
      Lucassen A.M., Julier C., Beressi J.-P., Boitard C., Froguel P., Lathrop M., Bell J.I.
      Nat. Genet. 4:305-310(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    6. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    7. "Global haplotype diversity in the human insulin gene region."
      Stead J.D.H., Hurles M.E., Jeffreys A.J.
      Genome Res. 13:2101-2111(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    8. "Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
      Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
      Submitted (OCT-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    9. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    10. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Tissue: Pancreas.
    11. "Description of a novel RFLP diallelic polymorphism (-127 BsgI C/G) within the 5' region of insulin gene."
      Fajardy I.I., Weill J.J., Stuckens C.C., Danze P.M.P.
      Submitted (JUL-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] OF 1-59.
      Tissue: Blood.
    12. "Amino-acid sequence of human insulin."
      Nicol D.S.H.W., Smith L.F.
      Nature 187:483-485(1960) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 25-54 AND 90-110.
    13. "Studies on human proinsulin. Isolation and amino acid sequence of the human pancreatic C-peptide."
      Oyer P.E., Cho S., Peterson J.D., Steiner D.F.
      J. Biol. Chem. 246:1375-1386(1971) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 57-87.
    14. "The amino acid sequence of the C-peptide of human proinsulin."
      Ko A., Smyth D.G., Markussen J., Sundby F.
      Eur. J. Biochem. 20:190-199(1971) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 57-87.
    15. "Total synthesis of human insulin under directed formation of the disulfide bonds."
      Sieber P., Kamber B., Hartmann A., Joehl A., Riniker B., Rittel W.
      Helv. Chim. Acta 57:2617-2621(1974) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SYNTHESIS.
    16. "Studies on polypeptides, IV. The synthesis of C-peptide of human proinsulin."
      Naithani V.K.
      Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 354:659-672(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SYNTHESIS OF 57-87.
    17. "Synthesis of peptides with the properties of human proinsulin C peptides (hC peptide). 3. Synthesis of the sequences 14-17 and 9-13 of human proinsulin C peptides."
      Geiger R., Volk A.
      Chem. Ber. 106:199-205(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SYNTHESIS OF 65-69 AND 70-73.
    18. "Synthesis of peptides with the properties of human proinsulin C peptides (hC peptide). I. Scheme for the synthesis and preparation of the sequence 28-31 of human proinsulin C peptide."
      Geiger R., Jaeger G., Keonig W., Treuth G.
      Chem. Ber. 106:188-192(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: SYNTHESIS OF 84-87.
    19. "Studies on mutant human insulin genes: identification and sequence analysis of a gene encoding [SerB24]insulin."
      Haneda M., Chan S.J., Kwok S.C.M., Rubenstein A.H., Steiner D.F.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:6366-6370(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT LOS ANGELES SER-48.
    20. "Identification of a mutant human insulin predicted to contain a serine-for-phenylalanine substitution."
      Shoelson S., Fickova M., Haneda M., Nahum A., Musso G., Kaiser E.T., Rubenstein A.H., Tager H.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:7390-7394(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS LOS ANGELES SER-48 AND CHICAGO LEU-49.
    21. "A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia."
      Chan S.J., Seino S., Gruppuso P.A., Schwartz R., Steiner D.F.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:2194-2197(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT FHPRI ASP-34.
    22. "Structurally abnormal insulin in a diabetic patient. Characterization of the mutant insulin A3 (Val-->Leu) isolated from the pancreas."
      Sakura H., Iwamoto Y., Sakamoto Y., Kuzuya T., Hirata H.
      J. Clin. Invest. 78:1666-1672(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT WAKAYAMA LEU-92.
    23. "Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction."
      Barbetti F., Raben N., Kadowaki T., Cama A., Accili D., Gabbay K.H., Merenich J.A., Taylor S.I., Roth J.
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71:164-169(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT FHPRI HIS-89.
    24. "Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia."
      Shibasaki Y., Kawakami T., Kanazawa Y., Akanuma Y., Takaku F.
      J. Clin. Invest. 76:378-380(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT FHPRI HIS-89.
    25. "A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto)."
      Yano H., Kitano N., Morimoto M., Polonsky K.S., Imura H., Seino Y.
      J. Clin. Invest. 89:1902-1907(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANT FHPRI LEU-89.
    26. "Toward the solution structure of human insulin: sequential 2D 1H NMR assignment of a des-pentapeptide analogue and comparison with crystal structure."
      Hua Q.-X., Weiss M.A.
      Biochemistry 29:10545-10555(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
    27. "Comparative 2D NMR studies of human insulin and des-pentapeptide insulin: sequential resonance assignment and implications for protein dynamics and receptor recognition."
      Hua Q.-X., Weiss M.A.
      Biochemistry 30:5505-5515(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
    28. "Two-dimensional NMR studies of Des-(B26-B30)-insulin: sequence-specific resonance assignments and effects of solvent composition."
      Hua Q.-X., Weiss M.A.
      Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1078:101-110(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
    29. "Three-dimensional solution structure of an insulin dimer. A study of the B9(Asp) mutant of human insulin using nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics."
      Joergensen A.M.M., Kristensen S.M., Led J.J., Balschmidt P.
      J. Mol. Biol. 227:1146-1163(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
    30. "Paradoxical structure and function in a mutant human insulin associated with diabetes mellitus."
      Hua Q.-X., Shoelson S.E., Inouye K., Weiss M.A.
      Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:582-586(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF VARIANT LOS-ANGELES SER-48.
    31. "Solution structures of the R6 human insulin hexamer."
      Chang X., Joergensen A.M., Bardrum P., Led J.J.
      Biochemistry 36:9409-9422(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR.
    32. Cited for: VARIANTS PNDM ASP-24; ARG-32; SER-32; GLY-43; VAL-47; CYS-48; CYS-89; CYS-90; TYR-96 AND CYS-108.
    33. "Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood."
      Edghill E.L., Flanagan S.E., Patch A.M., Boustred C., Parrish A., Shields B., Shepherd M.H., Hussain K., Kapoor R.R., Malecki M., MacDonald M.J., Stoy J., Steiner D.F., Philipson L.H., Bell G.I., Hattersley A.T., Ellard S.
      Diabetes 57:1034-1042(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS PNDM ASP-24; ASP-29; ARG-32; SER-32; PRO-35; GLY-43; VAL-47; CYS-48; ARG-84; CYS-89; CYS-90; SER-96; TYR-96; CYS-101; CYS-103 AND CYS-108, VARIANT MODY10 CYS-6, VARIANT MET-68.
    34. Cited for: VARIANT MODY10 GLN-46, VARIANT IDDM2 CYS-55.
    35. "Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)."
      Boesgaard T.W., Pruhova S., Andersson E.A., Cinek O., Obermannova B., Lauenborg J., Damm P., Bergholdt R., Pociot F., Pisinger C., Barbetti F., Lebl J., Pedersen O., Hansen T.
      BMC Med. Genet. 11:42-42(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: VARIANTS MODY10 HIS-6 AND GLN-46.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiINS_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01308
    Secondary accession number(s): Q5EEX2
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
    Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 196 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 11
      Human chromosome 11: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
      List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
      Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    4. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    5. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    6. Protein Spotlight
      Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
    7. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3