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Protein

Somatoliberin

Gene

GHRH

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

GRF is released by the hypothalamus and acts on the adenohypophyse to stimulate the secretion of growth hormone.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: BHF-UCL
  2. growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor binding Source: BHF-UCL

GO - Biological processi

  1. adenohypophysis development Source: BHF-UCL
  2. adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
  3. cAMP-mediated signaling Source: BHF-UCL
  4. cell-cell signaling Source: ProtInc
  5. growth hormone secretion Source: MGI
  6. positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process Source: BHF-UCL
  7. positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: BHF-UCL
  8. positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep Source: BHF-UCL
  9. positive regulation of growth hormone secretion Source: BHF-UCL
  10. positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: BHF-UCL
  11. positive regulation of multicellular organism growth Source: BHF-UCL
  12. response to food Source: BHF-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Somatoliberin
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone-releasing factor
Short name:
GRF
Growth hormone-releasing hormone
Short name:
GHRH
Somatocrinin
Somatorelin
INN: Sermorelin
Gene namesi
Name:GHRH
Synonyms:GHRF
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 20

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4265. GHRH.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. extracellular region Source: BHF-UCL
  2. extracellular space Source: BHF-UCL
  3. terminal bouton Source: BHF-UCL
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Pharmaceutical usei

Available under the names Groliberin (Pharmacia) or Somatrel (Ferring). Also available under the name Geref (Serono). Geref is a synthetic acetylated form of residues 1 to 29 of GHRH. Used for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency.

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28675.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGHRH.
DMDMi134521.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2020Sequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Propeptidei21 – 31111 PublicationPRO_0000011438Add
BLAST
Peptidei32 – 7544SomatoliberinPRO_0000011439Add
BLAST
Propeptidei78 – 10831PRO_0000011440Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei75 – 751Leucine amide1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01286.
PRIDEiP01286.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP01286.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP01286.
CleanExiHS_GHRH.
GenevestigatoriP01286.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108958. 1 interaction.
IntActiP01286. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-8090632.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000237527.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP01286.
SMRiP01286. Positions 32-59, 78-104.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG47924.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000008103.
HOGENOMiHOG000115417.
HOVERGENiHBG004478.
InParanoidiP01286.
KOiK05260.
OMAiIMSRQQG.
OrthoDBiEOG7WQ7VQ.
PhylomeDBiP01286.
TreeFamiTF353187.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: P01286-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MPLWVFFFVI LTLSNSSHCS PPPPLTLRMR RYADAIFTNS YRKVLGQLSA
60 70 80 90 100
RKLLQDIMSR QQGESNQERG ARARLGRQVD SMWAEQKQME LESILVALLQ

KHSRNSQG
Length:108
Mass (Da):12,447
Last modified:July 21, 1986 - v1
Checksum:i366AE05383488C53
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: P01286-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     103-103: Missing.

Show »
Length:107
Mass (Da):12,360
Checksum:i74432263093C5367
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti92 – 921E → D in CAA24955 (PubMed:6415488).Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti32 – 321Y → C.
Corresponds to variant rs17787698 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049185
Natural varianti75 – 751L → F.
Corresponds to variant rs4988492 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_024328

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei103 – 1031Missing in isoform 2. 2 PublicationsVSP_023146

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L29177 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
L00137
, L00134, L00135, L00136 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52608.1.
L00137
, L00134, L00135, L00136 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52609.1.
AL031659 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB41762.2.
AL031659 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI42673.1.
BC098109 mRNA. Translation: AAH98109.1.
BC098161 mRNA. Translation: AAH98161.1.
BC099727 mRNA. Translation: AAH99727.1.
X00094 mRNA. Translation: CAA24955.1.
X00094 mRNA. Translation: CAA24956.1.
CCDSiCCDS13292.1. [P01286-1]
CCDS54460.1. [P01286-2]
PIRiA21902. RHHUS.
RefSeqiNP_001171660.1. NM_001184731.1. [P01286-2]
NP_066567.1. NM_021081.4. [P01286-1]
UniGeneiHs.37023.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000237527; ENSP00000237527; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-1]
ENST00000373611; ENSP00000362713; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-2]
ENST00000373614; ENSP00000362716; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-1]
GeneIDi2691.
KEGGihsa:2691.
UCSCiuc002xgr.3. human. [P01286-1]
uc002xgt.3. human. [P01286-2]

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGHRH.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Wikipedia

Growth hormone releasing hormone entry

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
L29177 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
L00137
, L00134, L00135, L00136 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52608.1.
L00137
, L00134, L00135, L00136 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAA52609.1.
AL031659 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAB41762.2.
AL031659 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI42673.1.
BC098109 mRNA. Translation: AAH98109.1.
BC098161 mRNA. Translation: AAH98161.1.
BC099727 mRNA. Translation: AAH99727.1.
X00094 mRNA. Translation: CAA24955.1.
X00094 mRNA. Translation: CAA24956.1.
CCDSiCCDS13292.1. [P01286-1]
CCDS54460.1. [P01286-2]
PIRiA21902. RHHUS.
RefSeqiNP_001171660.1. NM_001184731.1. [P01286-2]
NP_066567.1. NM_021081.4. [P01286-1]
UniGeneiHs.37023.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliP01286.
SMRiP01286. Positions 32-59, 78-104.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi108958. 1 interaction.
IntActiP01286. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-8090632.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000237527.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiP01286.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGHRH.
DMDMi134521.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01286.
PRIDEiP01286.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000237527; ENSP00000237527; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-1]
ENST00000373611; ENSP00000362713; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-2]
ENST00000373614; ENSP00000362716; ENSG00000118702. [P01286-1]
GeneIDi2691.
KEGGihsa:2691.
UCSCiuc002xgr.3. human. [P01286-1]
uc002xgt.3. human. [P01286-2]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2691.
GeneCardsiGC20M035880.
HGNCiHGNC:4265. GHRH.
MIMi139190. gene.
neXtProtiNX_P01286.
PharmGKBiPA28675.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG47924.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000008103.
HOGENOMiHOG000115417.
HOVERGENiHBG004478.
InParanoidiP01286.
KOiK05260.
OMAiIMSRQQG.
OrthoDBiEOG7WQ7VQ.
PhylomeDBiP01286.
TreeFamiTF353187.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii2691.
NextBioi10640.
PROiP01286.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiP01286.
CleanExiHS_GHRH.
GenevestigatoriP01286.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the precursor of human growth hormone-releasing factor, somatocrinin."
    Gubler U., Monahan J.J., Lomedico P.T., Bhatt R.S., Collier K.J., Hoffman B.J., Boehlen P., Esch F., Ling N., Zeytin F., Brazeau P., Poonian M.S., Gage L.P.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:4311-4314(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2).
  2. "Gene encoding human growth hormone-releasing factor precursor: structure, sequence, and chromosomal assignment."
    Mayo K.E., Cerelli G.M., Lebo R.V., Bruce B.D., Rosenfeld M.G., Evans R.M.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:63-67(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20."
    Deloukas P., Matthews L.H., Ashurst J.L., Burton J., Gilbert J.G.R., Jones M., Stavrides G., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C.L., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beard L.M., Beare D.M., Beasley O.P., Bird C.P., Blakey S.E.
    , Bridgeman A.M., Brown A.J., Buck D., Burrill W.D., Butler A.P., Carder C., Carter N.P., Chapman J.C., Clamp M., Clark G., Clark L.N., Clark S.Y., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Cobley V.E., Collier R.E., Connor R.E., Corby N.R., Coulson A., Coville G.J., Deadman R., Dhami P.D., Dunn M., Ellington A.G., Frankland J.A., Fraser A., French L., Garner P., Grafham D.V., Griffiths C., Griffiths M.N.D., Gwilliam R., Hall R.E., Hammond S., Harley J.L., Heath P.D., Ho S., Holden J.L., Howden P.J., Huckle E., Hunt A.R., Hunt S.E., Jekosch K., Johnson C.M., Johnson D., Kay M.P., Kimberley A.M., King A., Knights A., Laird G.K., Lawlor S., Lehvaeslaiho M.H., Leversha M.A., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Lovell J.D., Marsh V.L., Martin S.L., McConnachie L.J., McLay K., McMurray A.A., Milne S.A., Mistry D., Moore M.J.F., Mullikin J.C., Nickerson T., Oliver K., Parker A., Patel R., Pearce T.A.V., Peck A.I., Phillimore B.J.C.T., Prathalingam S.R., Plumb R.W., Ramsay H., Rice C.M., Ross M.T., Scott C.E., Sehra H.K., Shownkeen R., Sims S., Skuce C.D., Smith M.L., Soderlund C., Steward C.A., Sulston J.E., Swann R.M., Sycamore N., Taylor R., Tee L., Thomas D.W., Thorpe A., Tracey A., Tromans A.C., Vaudin M., Wall M., Wallis J.M., Whitehead S.L., Whittaker P., Willey D.L., Williams L., Williams S.A., Wilming L., Wray P.W., Hubbard T., Durbin R.M., Bentley D.R., Beck S., Rogers J.
    Nature 414:865-871(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2).
  5. "Expression-cloning and sequence of a cDNA encoding human growth hormone-releasing factor."
    Mayo K.E., Vale W., Rivier J., Rosenfeld M.G., Evans R.M.
    Nature 306:86-88(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 6-101.
  6. "Growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatic tumor that caused acromegaly."
    Guillemin R., Brazeau P., Boehlen P., Esch F., Ling N., Wehrenberg W.B.
    Science 218:585-587(1982) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 32-75, AMIDATION AT LEU-75.
  7. "Solution conformations of human growth hormone releasing factor: comparison of the restrained molecular dynamics and distance geometry methods for a system without long-range distance data."
    Bruenger A.T., Clore G.M., Gronenborn A.M., Karplus M.
    Protein Eng. 1:399-406(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 32-60.
  8. "Solution structure of human growth hormone releasing factor. Combined use of circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy."
    Clore G.M., Martin S.R., Gronenborn A.M.
    J. Mol. Biol. 191:553-561(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: STRUCTURE BY NMR OF 32-60.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSLIB_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01286
Secondary accession number(s): Q4KN10, Q5JYR1
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: July 21, 1986
Last modified: April 29, 2015
This is version 142 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Pharmaceutical, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 20
    Human chromosome 20: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.