Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

Glucagon

Gene

GCG

Organism
Sus scrofa (Pig)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability (By similarity).By similarity
Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake.By similarity
Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glucagon
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
Oxyntomodulin
Short name:
OXM
Short name:
OXY
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Short name:
GLP-1
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-37)
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-36)
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Short name:
GLP-2
Gene namesi
Name:GCG
OrganismiSus scrofa (Pig)
Taxonomic identifieri9823 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaSuinaSuidaeSus
Proteomesi
  • UP000008227 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 202 PublicationsAdd BLAST20
PeptideiPRO_000001129321 – 89GlicentinAdd BLAST69
PeptideiPRO_000001129421 – 50Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_000001129553 – 89OxyntomodulinBy similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001129653 – 81GlucagonAdd BLAST29
PropeptideiPRO_000001129784 – 89By similarity6
PeptideiPRO_000001129892 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001129998 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)Add BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000001130098 – 127Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)Add BLAST30
PropeptideiPRO_0000011301131 – 145By similarityAdd BLAST15
PeptideiPRO_0000011302146 – 180Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityAdd BLAST35

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei54PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei105PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei108PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei127Arginine amideBy similarity1
Modified residuei150PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei152PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei52 – 53Cleavage; by PCSK2By similarity2
Sitei83 – 84Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2By similarity2
Sitei91 – 92Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei97 – 98Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei130 – 131Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei145 – 146Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01274.
PeptideAtlasiP01274.
PRIDEiP01274.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.1 Publication

Inductioni

Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion (By similarity).By similarity

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9823.ENSSSCP00000016844.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1180
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi59 – 62Combined sources4
Turni63 – 65Combined sources3
Helixi66 – 75Combined sources10

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1GCNX-ray3.00A53-81[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01274.
SMRiP01274.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01274.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP01274.
KOiK05259.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01274-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKTIYFVAGL FVMLVQGSWQ RSLQNTEEKS RSFPAPQTDP LDDPDQMTED
60 70 80 90 100
KRHSQGTFTS DYSKYLDSRR AQDFVQWLMN TKRNKNNIAK RHDEFERHAE
110 120 130 140 150
GTFTSDVSSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVKGRGRR DFPEEVTIVE ELRRRHADGS
160 170 180
FSDEMNTVLD NLATRDFINW LLHTKITDSL
Length:180
Mass (Da):21,029
Last modified:March 29, 2004 - v4
Checksum:i362997AB72197EE6
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti143R → G AA sequence (PubMed:3379036).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY242124 mRNA. Translation: AAO88211.1.
RefSeqiNP_999489.1. NM_214324.1.
UniGeneiSsc.17225.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi397595.
KEGGissc:397595.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY242124 mRNA. Translation: AAO88211.1.
RefSeqiNP_999489.1. NM_214324.1.
UniGeneiSsc.17225.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1GCNX-ray3.00A53-81[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01274.
SMRiP01274.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9823.ENSSSCP00000016844.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01274.
PeptideAtlasiP01274.
PRIDEiP01274.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi397595.
KEGGissc:397595.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2641.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8. Eukaryota.
ENOG4111VKC. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000231876.
HOVERGENiHBG003010.
InParanoidiP01274.
KOiK05259.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01274.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 4 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLUC_PIG
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01274
Secondary accession number(s): Q864V8
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: March 29, 2004
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 117 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

GLP-2 does not have cleavage on a pair of basic residues at C-terminus as in other mammals.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.