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Protein

Glucagon

Gene

GCG

Organism
Sus scrofa (Pig)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels. May be involved in the suppression of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues, independent of the actions of insulin. Have growth-promoting activities on intestinal epithelium. May also regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) via effects on LH, TSH, CRH, oxytocin, and vasopressin (By similarity).By similarity
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. The gastrointestinal tract, from the stomach to the colon is the principal target for GLP-2 action. Plays a key role in nutrient homeostasis, enhancing nutrient assimilation through enhanced gastrointestinal function, as well as increasing nutrient disposal. Stimulates intestinal glucose transport and decreases mucosal permeability (By similarity).By similarity
Oxyntomodulin significantly reduces food intake.By similarity
Glicentin may modulate gastric acid secretion and gastro-pyloro-duodenal activity.

Miscellaneous

GLP-2 does not have cleavage on a pair of basic residues at C-terminus as in other mammals.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-SSC-163359 Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation
R-SSC-381676 Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion
R-SSC-381771 Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)
R-SSC-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-SSC-418555 G alpha (s) signalling events
R-SSC-420092 Glucagon-type ligand receptors
R-SSC-422085 Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glucagon
Cleaved into the following 8 chains:
Oxyntomodulin
Short name:
OXM
Short name:
OXY
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Short name:
GLP-1
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-37)
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-36)
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Short name:
GLP-2
Gene namesi
Name:GCG
OrganismiSus scrofa (Pig)
Taxonomic identifieri9823 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaSuinaSuidaeSus
Proteomesi
  • UP000008227 Componenti: Chromosome 15

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 202 PublicationsAdd BLAST20
PeptideiPRO_000001129321 – 89GlicentinAdd BLAST69
PeptideiPRO_000001129421 – 50Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityAdd BLAST30
PeptideiPRO_000001129553 – 89OxyntomodulinBy similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001129653 – 81GlucagonAdd BLAST29
PropeptideiPRO_000001129784 – 89By similarity6
PeptideiPRO_000001129892 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityAdd BLAST37
PeptideiPRO_000001129998 – 128Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)Add BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000001130098 – 127Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)Add BLAST30
PropeptideiPRO_0000011301131 – 145By similarityAdd BLAST15
PeptideiPRO_0000011302146 – 180Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityAdd BLAST35

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei54PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei105PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei108PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei127Arginine amideBy similarity1
Modified residuei150PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei152PhosphoserineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Proglucagon is post-translationally processed in a tissue-specific manner in pancreatic A cells and intestinal L cells. In pancreatic A cells, the major bioactive hormone is glucagon cleaved by PCSK2/PC2. In the intestinal L cells PCSK1/PC1 liberates GLP-1, GLP-2, glicentin and oxyntomodulin. GLP-1 is further N-terminally truncated by post-translational processing in the intestinal L cells resulting in GLP-1(7-37) GLP-1-(7-36)amide. The C-terminal amidation is neither important for the metabolism of GLP-1 nor for its effects on the endocrine pancreas (By similarity).By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei52 – 53Cleavage; by PCSK2By similarity2
Sitei83 – 84Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2By similarity2
Sitei91 – 92Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei97 – 98Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei130 – 131Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2
Sitei145 – 146Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiP01274
PeptideAtlasiP01274
PRIDEiP01274

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.1 Publication

Inductioni

Glucagon release is stimulated by hypoglycemia and inhibited by hyperglycemia, insulin, and somatostatin. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are induced in response to nutrient ingestion (By similarity).By similarity

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiP01274 baseline and differential

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9823.ENSSSCP00000016844

Structurei

Secondary structure

1180
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Helixi59 – 62Combined sources4
Turni63 – 65Combined sources3
Helixi66 – 75Combined sources10

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1GCNX-ray3.00A53-81[»]
ProteinModelPortaliP01274
SMRiP01274
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiP01274

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IKZ8 Eukaryota
ENOG4111VKC LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000005372
HOGENOMiHOG000231876
HOVERGENiHBG003010
InParanoidiP01274
KOiK05259

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR015550 Glucagon
IPR000532 Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP
PANTHERiPTHR11418 PTHR11418, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00123 Hormone_2, 3 hits
PRINTSiPR00275 GLUCAGON
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00070 GLUCA, 3 hits
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00260 GLUCAGON, 4 hits

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

P01274-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKTIYFVAGL FVMLVQGSWQ RSLQNTEEKS RSFPAPQTDP LDDPDQMTED
60 70 80 90 100
KRHSQGTFTS DYSKYLDSRR AQDFVQWLMN TKRNKNNIAK RHDEFERHAE
110 120 130 140 150
GTFTSDVSSY LEGQAAKEFI AWLVKGRGRR DFPEEVTIVE ELRRRHADGS
160 170 180
FSDEMNTVLD NLATRDFINW LLHTKITDSL
Length:180
Mass (Da):21,029
Last modified:March 29, 2004 - v4
Checksum:i362997AB72197EE6
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti143R → G AA sequence (PubMed:3379036).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY242124 mRNA Translation: AAO88211.1
RefSeqiNP_999489.1, NM_214324.1
XP_005671939.1, XM_005671882.2
UniGeneiSsc.17225

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSSSCT00000017307; ENSSSCP00000016844; ENSSSCG00000015895
GeneIDi397595
KEGGissc:397595

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLUC_PIG
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: P01274
Secondary accession number(s): Q864V8
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 21, 1986
Last sequence update: March 29, 2004
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 129 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

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