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Protein

Growth/differentiation factor 11

Gene

GDF11

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis during development. May play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the skeletal pattern (By similarity). Signals through activin receptors type-2, ACVR2A and ACVR2B, and activin receptors type-1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C and TGFBR1 leading to the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 (PubMed:28257634).By similarity1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine, Growth factor

Enzyme and pathway databases

SignaLinkiO95390.
SIGNORiO95390.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 111 Publication
Short name:
GDF-11
Alternative name(s):
Bone morphogenetic protein 111 Publication
Short name:
BMP-11
Gene namesi
Name:GDF11
Synonyms:BMP111 Publication
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 12

Organism-specific databases

EuPathDBiHostDB:ENSG00000135414.9.
HGNCiHGNC:4216. GDF11.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi10220.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000135414.
PharmGKBiPA28631.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGDF11.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 24Sequence analysisAdd BLAST24
PropeptideiPRO_000003398625 – 298By similarityAdd BLAST274
ChainiPRO_0000033987299 – 407Growth/differentiation factor 11Add BLAST109

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi94N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi304 ↔ 314Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi313 ↔ 372Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi341 ↔ 404Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi345 ↔ 406Combined sources2 Publications
Disulfide bondi371InterchainCombined sources2 Publications

Post-translational modificationi

Synthesized as large precursor molecule that undergoes proteolytic cleavage. The mature C-terminal portion of the molecule is bound non-covalently to its N-terminal propeptide rendering it inactive. Ligand activation requires additional cleavage of the prodomain by a tolloid-like metalloproteinase.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei121 – 122Cleavage; by BMP1By similarity2

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO95390.
PeptideAtlasiO95390.
PRIDEiO95390.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO95390.
PhosphoSitePlusiO95390.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000135414.
CleanExiHS_GDF11.
ExpressionAtlasiO95390. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiO95390. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA060985.
HPA069609.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:26919518). Interacts directly with ACVR2B (By similarity). Interacts directly with ACVR2A (By similarity). Interacts with ACVR1B, TGFBR1 and ACVR1C in an ACVR2B-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with FST isoform 2/FS-288 (PubMed:28257634).By similarity2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi115515. 20 interactors.
IntActiO95390. 6 interactors.
MINTiMINT-2798837.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000257868.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1407
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi301 – 304Combined sources4
Beta strandi312 – 316Combined sources5
Beta strandi319 – 321Combined sources3
Turni322 – 326Combined sources5
Beta strandi330 – 332Combined sources3
Beta strandi334 – 337Combined sources4
Beta strandi340 – 342Combined sources3
Turni347 – 350Combined sources4
Helixi355 – 362Combined sources8
Beta strandi371 – 385Combined sources15
Beta strandi387 – 389Combined sources3
Beta strandi391 – 407Combined sources17

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
5E4GX-ray1.50A299-407[»]
5JHWX-ray2.35A/B299-407[»]
5UHMX-ray1.90A/B299-407[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO95390.
SMRiO95390.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi29 – 41Poly-AlaAdd BLAST13
Compositional biasi210 – 215Poly-Gly6

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3900. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XT8Z. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119112.
HOGENOMiHOG000006566.
HOVERGENiHBG000217.
InParanoidiO95390.
KOiK05497.
OMAiGSHECSA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G078V.
PhylomeDBiO95390.
TreeFamiTF318514.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR001839. TGF-b_C.
IPR001111. TGF-b_propeptide.
IPR015615. TGF-beta-rel.
IPR017948. TGFb_CS.
PANTHERiPTHR11848. PTHR11848. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019. TGF_beta. 1 hit.
PF00688. TGFb_propeptide. 1 hit.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204. TGFB. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00250. TGF_BETA_1. 1 hit.
PS51362. TGF_BETA_2. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

O95390-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVLAAPLLLG FLLLALELRP RGEAAEGPAA AAAAAAAAAA AGVGGERSSR
60 70 80 90 100
PAPSVAPEPD GCPVCVWRQH SRELRLESIK SQILSKLRLK EAPNISREVV
110 120 130 140 150
KQLLPKAPPL QQILDLHDFQ GDALQPEDFL EEDEYHATTE TVISMAQETD
160 170 180 190 200
PAVQTDGSPL CCHFHFSPKV MFTKVLKAQL WVYLRPVPRP ATVYLQILRL
210 220 230 240 250
KPLTGEGTAG GGGGGRRHIR IRSLKIELHS RSGHWQSIDF KQVLHSWFRQ
260 270 280 290 300
PQSNWGIEIN AFDPSGTDLA VTSLGPGAEG LHPFMELRVL ENTKRSRRNL
310 320 330 340 350
GLDCDEHSSE SRCCRYPLTV DFEAFGWDWI IAPKRYKANY CSGQCEYMFM
360 370 380 390 400
QKYPHTHLVQ QANPRGSAGP CCTPTKMSPI NMLYFNDKQQ IIYGKIPGMV

VDRCGCS
Length:407
Mass (Da):45,091
Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v1
Checksum:iE8FF48E363635BA8
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF100907 mRNA. Translation: AAC72852.1.
AF028333 mRNA. Translation: AAF21630.1.
AF028334 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF21631.1.
CCDSiCCDS8891.1.
RefSeqiNP_005802.1. NM_005811.4.
XP_006719257.1. XM_006719194.3.
UniGeneiHs.600883.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000257868; ENSP00000257868; ENSG00000135414.
GeneIDi10220.
KEGGihsa:10220.
UCSCiuc001shq.4. human.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGDF11_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O95390
Secondary accession number(s): Q9UID1, Q9UID2
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 24, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
Last modified: September 27, 2017
This is version 143 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 12
    Human chromosome 12: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families