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Protein

Retinal dehydrogenase 2

Gene

ALDH1A2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).By similarity

Catalytic activityi

Retinal + NAD+ + H2O = retinoate + NADH.

Pathwayi: retinol metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway retinol metabolism, which is part of Cofactor metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway retinol metabolism and in Cofactor metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei187Transition state stabilizerBy similarity1
Active sitei286Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Active sitei320NucleophilePROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi263 – 268NADBy similarity6

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Ligandi

NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05232-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS05232-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-5365859. RA biosynthesis pathway.
UniPathwayiUPA00912.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 (EC:1.2.1.36)
Short name:
RALDH 2
Short name:
RalDH2
Alternative name(s):
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A2
Retinaldehyde-specific dehydrogenase type 2
Short name:
RALDH(II)
Gene namesi
Name:ALDH1A2
Synonyms:RALDH2
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 15

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:15472. ALDH1A2.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  • cytosol Source: Reactome
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: Ensembl
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi8854.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000128918.
PharmGKBiPA24693.

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3112384.
DrugBankiDB00755. Tretinoin.
DB00162. Vitamin A.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiALDH1A2.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000564221 – 518Retinal dehydrogenase 2Add BLAST518

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei168PhosphotyrosineCombined sources1
Modified residuei351PhosphoserineCombined sources1

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

EPDiO94788.
MaxQBiO94788.
PaxDbiO94788.
PeptideAtlasiO94788.
PRIDEiO94788.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO94788.
PhosphoSitePlusiO94788.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000128918.
CleanExiHS_ALDH1A2.
ExpressionAtlasiO94788. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiO94788. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA010022.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homotetramer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114379. 4 interactors.
IntActiO94788. 1 interactor.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000249750.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiO94788.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1518
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Beta strandi39 – 42Combined sources4
Beta strandi45 – 47Combined sources3
Beta strandi54 – 58Combined sources5
Turni60 – 62Combined sources3
Beta strandi65 – 70Combined sources6
Helixi74 – 86Combined sources13
Helixi93 – 96Combined sources4
Helixi99 – 115Combined sources17
Helixi117 – 128Combined sources12
Helixi132 – 137Combined sources6
Helixi139 – 153Combined sources15
Turni154 – 156Combined sources3
Beta strandi165 – 176Combined sources12
Beta strandi178 – 183Combined sources6
Beta strandi186 – 188Combined sources3
Helixi189 – 202Combined sources14
Beta strandi206 – 210Combined sources5
Helixi217 – 229Combined sources13
Beta strandi235 – 238Combined sources4
Turni243 – 245Combined sources3
Helixi246 – 251Combined sources6
Beta strandi257 – 263Combined sources7
Helixi265 – 273Combined sources9
Beta strandi282 – 286Combined sources5
Beta strandi293 – 295Combined sources3
Helixi301 – 309Combined sources9
Turni310 – 312Combined sources3
Helixi314 – 317Combined sources4
Beta strandi324 – 329Combined sources6
Turni330 – 332Combined sources3
Helixi333 – 344Combined sources12
Helixi365 – 379Combined sources15
Turni380 – 382Combined sources3
Beta strandi384 – 387Combined sources4
Beta strandi394 – 396Combined sources3
Beta strandi402 – 407Combined sources6
Helixi412 – 415Combined sources4
Beta strandi420 – 428Combined sources9
Helixi431 – 439Combined sources9
Beta strandi446 – 450Combined sources5
Helixi454 – 463Combined sources10
Beta strandi467 – 472Combined sources6
Turni497 – 499Combined sources3
Helixi500 – 503Combined sources4
Beta strandi504 – 512Combined sources9

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4X2QX-ray2.94A/B/C/D21-518[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO94788.
SMRiO94788.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2450. Eukaryota.
COG1012. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118999.
HOGENOMiHOG000271505.
HOVERGENiHBG000097.
InParanoidiO94788.
KOiK07249.
OMAiKPIANAY.
OrthoDBiEOG091G05E8.
PhylomeDBiO94788.
TreeFamiTF300455.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.309.10. 1 hit.
3.40.605.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR016161. Ald_DH/histidinol_DH.
IPR016163. Ald_DH_C.
IPR016160. Ald_DH_CS_CYS.
IPR029510. Ald_DH_CS_GLU.
IPR016162. Ald_DH_N.
IPR015590. Aldehyde_DH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00171. Aldedh. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53720. SSF53720. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00070. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_CYS. 1 hit.
PS00687. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_GLU. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (4)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: O94788-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MTSSKIEMPG EVKADPAALM ASLHLLPSPT PNLEIKYTKI FINNEWQNSE
60 70 80 90 100
SGRVFPVYNP ATGEQVCEVQ EADKADIDKA VQAARLAFSL GSVWRRMDAS
110 120 130 140 150
ERGRLLDKLA DLVERDRAVL ATMESLNGGK PFLQAFYVDL QGVIKTFRYY
160 170 180 190 200
AGWADKIHGM TIPVDGDYFT FTRHEPIGVC GQIIPWNFPL LMFAWKIAPA
210 220 230 240 250
LCCGNTVVIK PAEQTPLSAL YMGALIKEAG FPPGVINILP GYGPTAGAAI
260 270 280 290 300
ASHIGIDKIA FTGSTEVGKL IQEAAGRSNL KRVTLELGGK SPNIIFADAD
310 320 330 340 350
LDYAVEQAHQ GVFFNQGQCC TAGSRIFVEE SIYEEFVRRS VERAKRRVVG
360 370 380 390 400
SPFDPTTEQG PQIDKKQYNK ILELIQSGVA EGAKLECGGK GLGRKGFFIE
410 420 430 440 450
PTVFSNVTDD MRIAKEEIFG PVQEILRFKT MDEVIERANN SDFGLVAAVF
460 470 480 490 500
TNDINKALTV SSAMQAGTVW INCYNALNAQ SPFGGFKMSG NGREMGEFGL
510
REYSEVKTVT VKIPQKNS
Length:518
Mass (Da):56,724
Last modified:March 7, 2006 - v3
Checksum:iAAEE7A886951373F
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: O94788-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     229-266: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:480
Mass (Da):53,060
Checksum:i5AC931BE5ED26AA4
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: O94788-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-39: MTSSKIEMPGEVKADPAALMASLHLLPSPTPNLEIKYTK → MKNQCETVWLKSPIKLKL

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:497
Mass (Da):54,673
Checksum:i27E8A8307A680BB7
GO
Isoform 4 (identifier: O94788-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-96: Missing.

Show »
Length:422
Mass (Da):46,137
Checksum:i4927D07BDD3BAC5D
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti231F → L in BAG64174 (PubMed:14702039).Curated1

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural variantiVAR_02543950E → G.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs34266719dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025440110A → V.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs35365164dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025441348V → I.4 PublicationsCorresponds to variant rs4646626dbSNPEnsembl.1
Natural variantiVAR_025442436E → K.1 PublicationCorresponds to variant rs34744827dbSNPEnsembl.1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0472591 – 96Missing in isoform 4. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST96
Alternative sequenceiVSP_0444961 – 39MTSSK…IKYTK → MKNQCETVWLKSPIKLKL in isoform 3. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST39
Alternative sequenceiVSP_017363229 – 266Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationAdd BLAST38

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015226 mRNA. Translation: BAA34785.1.
AB015227 mRNA. Translation: BAA34786.1.
AB015228 mRNA. Translation: BAA34787.1.
AK128709 mRNA. Translation: BAG54714.1.
AK303057 mRNA. Translation: BAG64174.1.
DQ322171 Genomic DNA. Translation: ABC40749.1.
AC012653 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC018904 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC025431 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC066616 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC084781 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC030589 mRNA. Translation: AAH30589.1.
AL110299 mRNA. Translation: CAB53740.2.
CCDSiCCDS10163.1. [O94788-1]
CCDS10164.1. [O94788-2]
CCDS45266.1. [O94788-4]
CCDS55968.1. [O94788-3]
PIRiT14799.
RefSeqiNP_001193826.1. NM_001206897.1. [O94788-3]
NP_003879.2. NM_003888.3. [O94788-1]
NP_733797.1. NM_170696.2. [O94788-2]
NP_733798.1. NM_170697.2. [O94788-4]
UniGeneiHs.643455.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000249750; ENSP00000249750; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-1]
ENST00000347587; ENSP00000309623; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-2]
ENST00000537372; ENSP00000438296; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-3]
ENST00000559517; ENSP00000453408; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-4]
GeneIDi8854.
KEGGihsa:8854.
UCSCiuc002aew.4. human. [O94788-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

NIEHS-SNPs

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015226 mRNA. Translation: BAA34785.1.
AB015227 mRNA. Translation: BAA34786.1.
AB015228 mRNA. Translation: BAA34787.1.
AK128709 mRNA. Translation: BAG54714.1.
AK303057 mRNA. Translation: BAG64174.1.
DQ322171 Genomic DNA. Translation: ABC40749.1.
AC012653 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC018904 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC025431 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC066616 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
AC084781 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
BC030589 mRNA. Translation: AAH30589.1.
AL110299 mRNA. Translation: CAB53740.2.
CCDSiCCDS10163.1. [O94788-1]
CCDS10164.1. [O94788-2]
CCDS45266.1. [O94788-4]
CCDS55968.1. [O94788-3]
PIRiT14799.
RefSeqiNP_001193826.1. NM_001206897.1. [O94788-3]
NP_003879.2. NM_003888.3. [O94788-1]
NP_733797.1. NM_170696.2. [O94788-2]
NP_733798.1. NM_170697.2. [O94788-4]
UniGeneiHs.643455.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
4X2QX-ray2.94A/B/C/D21-518[»]
ProteinModelPortaliO94788.
SMRiO94788.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114379. 4 interactors.
IntActiO94788. 1 interactor.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000249750.

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiO94788.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL3112384.
DrugBankiDB00755. Tretinoin.
DB00162. Vitamin A.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO94788.
PhosphoSitePlusiO94788.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiALDH1A2.

Proteomic databases

EPDiO94788.
MaxQBiO94788.
PaxDbiO94788.
PeptideAtlasiO94788.
PRIDEiO94788.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi8854.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000249750; ENSP00000249750; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-1]
ENST00000347587; ENSP00000309623; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-2]
ENST00000537372; ENSP00000438296; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-3]
ENST00000559517; ENSP00000453408; ENSG00000128918. [O94788-4]
GeneIDi8854.
KEGGihsa:8854.
UCSCiuc002aew.4. human. [O94788-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8854.
DisGeNETi8854.
GeneCardsiALDH1A2.
H-InvDBHIX0038341.
HGNCiHGNC:15472. ALDH1A2.
HPAiHPA010022.
MIMi603687. gene.
neXtProtiNX_O94788.
OpenTargetsiENSG00000128918.
PharmGKBiPA24693.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG2450. Eukaryota.
COG1012. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118999.
HOGENOMiHOG000271505.
HOVERGENiHBG000097.
InParanoidiO94788.
KOiK07249.
OMAiKPIANAY.
OrthoDBiEOG091G05E8.
PhylomeDBiO94788.
TreeFamiTF300455.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00912.
BioCyciMetaCyc:HS05232-MONOMER.
ZFISH:HS05232-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-HSA-5365859. RA biosynthesis pathway.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiALDH1A2. human.
GeneWikiiALDH1A2.
GenomeRNAii8854.
PROiO94788.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSG00000128918.
CleanExiHS_ALDH1A2.
ExpressionAtlasiO94788. baseline and differential.
GenevisibleiO94788. HS.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.309.10. 1 hit.
3.40.605.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR016161. Ald_DH/histidinol_DH.
IPR016163. Ald_DH_C.
IPR016160. Ald_DH_CS_CYS.
IPR029510. Ald_DH_CS_GLU.
IPR016162. Ald_DH_N.
IPR015590. Aldehyde_DH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00171. Aldedh. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53720. SSF53720. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00070. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_CYS. 1 hit.
PS00687. ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_GLU. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAL1A2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O94788
Secondary accession number(s): B3KY52
, B4DZR2, F5H2Y9, H0YM00, Q2PJS6, Q8NHQ4, Q9UBR8, Q9UFY0
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: March 7, 2006
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 158 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 15
    Human chromosome 15: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  6. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  7. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.