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Protein Vpr



Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Unreviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 3 out of 5-Protein inferred from homologyi


During virus entry, plays a role in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the host nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.UniRule annotation
During virus replication, may deplete host UNG protein, and incude G2-M cell cycle arrest. Acts by targeting specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, through association with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex by direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the VPR carried into the virion. Additionally, VPR induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, VPR may also induce cell death to bystander cells.UniRule annotation


HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).UniRule annotation

GO - Biological processi


Molecular functionActivatorUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Ion channelUniRule annotation
Biological processApoptosisUniRule annotation, Cell cycleUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virusUniRule annotation, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulationUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleusUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein VprUniRule annotationSAAS annotation
Alternative name(s):
R ORF proteinUniRule annotation
Viral protein RUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:vprUniRule annotationImported
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus 1Imported
Taxonomic identifieri11676 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
  • UP000117419 Componenti: Genome

Subcellular locationi

  • Host nucleus UniRule annotationSAAS annotation
  • Virion UniRule annotation
  • Host extracellular space UniRule annotation
  • Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient.UniRule annotation

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleusUniRule annotationSAAS annotation, VirionUniRule annotationSAAS annotation

PTM / Processingi

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on several residues by host. These phosphorylations regulate VPR activity for the nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex.UniRule annotation

Keywords - PTMi

PhosphoproteinUniRule annotation


Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C-terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host UNG. May interact with host RAD23A/HHR23A. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediating ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase.UniRule annotation


3D structure databases


Family & Domainsi


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni1 – 42HomooligomerizationUniRule annotationAdd BLAST42

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.UniRule annotation

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_04080. HIV_VPR. 1 hit.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.


Sequence statusi: Complete.

O90160-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

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60 70 80 90
Mass (Da):11,380
Last modified:November 1, 1998 - v1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
AF069140 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD03328.1.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiO90160_9HIV1
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O90160
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL: November 1, 1998
Last sequence update: November 1, 1998
Last modified: February 28, 2018
This is version 73 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiUnreviewed (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)


Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteomeImported