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Protein

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4

Gene

MKK4

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the second phase of hydrogen peroxide generation during hypersensitive response-like cell death. Involved in the innate immune MAP kinase signaling cascade (MEKK1, MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6) downstream of bacterial flagellin receptor FLS2. Activates by phosphorylation the downstream MPK3 and MPK6. YDA-MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 module regulates stomatal cell fate before the guard mother cell (GMC) is specified. This MAPK cascade also functions downstream of the ER receptor in regulating coordinated local cell proliferation, which shapes the morphology of plant organs. MKK4 and MKK5 participate in the regulation of floral organ abscission. Mediates osmotic-stress response via its regulation of MPK3 activity. Target of the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopF2.7 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.

Enzyme regulationi

Activated through serine and threonine phosphorylation by MEKK1. Inhibited through phosphorylation by GSK3/Shaggy-like kinase ASKs.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei108 – 1081ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation
Active sitei196 – 1961Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi85 – 939ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • defense response, incompatible interaction Source: TAIR
  • floral organ abscission Source: TAIR
  • inflorescence development Source: TAIR
  • plant-type hypersensitive response Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • signal transduction by protein phosphorylation Source: GOC
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Hypersensitive response, Plant defense

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G51660-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-110056. MAPK3 (ERK1) activation.
R-ATH-112411. MAPK1 (ERK2) activation.
R-ATH-2559580. Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence.
R-ATH-445144. Signal transduction by L1.
R-ATH-450302. activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation.
R-ATH-450321. JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1.
R-ATH-5674135. MAP2K and MAPK activation.
R-ATH-5674499. Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (EC:2.7.12.2)
Short name:
AtMKK4
Short name:
MAP kinase kinase 4
Gene namesi
Name:MKK4
Ordered Locus Names:At1g51660
ORF Names:F19C24.26
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G51660.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast stroma Source: UniProtKB
  • cytoplasm Source: TAIR
  • nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Plastid

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

RNAi double mutants MKK4 and MKK5 have a strong abscission defect. Higher sensitivity to high salt and drought stresses.2 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi108 – 1081K → M: Loss of activity. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi108 – 1081K → R: Loss of activity. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi224 – 2241T → D: Constitutively active; when associated with D-230 or E-230. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi230 – 2301S → A: Abolishes phosphorylation by ASK7/BIN2. 3 Publications
Mutagenesisi230 – 2301S → D: Constitutively active; when associated with D-224. 3 Publications
Mutagenesisi230 – 2301S → E: Constitutively active; when associated with D-224. 3 Publications
Mutagenesisi234 – 2341T → A: Abolishes phosphorylation by ASK7/BIN2. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi234 – 2341T → D or E: Abolishes activity of MKK4 against MPK6. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 366366Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4PRO_0000245823Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei6 – 61Phosphoserine; by ASK71 Publication
Modified residuei224 – 2241Phosphothreonine1 Publication
Modified residuei230 – 2301Phosphoserine2 Publications
Modified residuei230 – 2301Phosphoserine; by ASK72 Publications
Modified residuei234 – 2341Phosphothreonine; by ASK71 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation at Thr-224 and Ser-230 by MAP kinase kinase kinases positively regulates kinase activity. Phosphorylation at Ser-230 and Thr-234 by GSK3/Shaggy-like kinase ASKs negatively regulates kinase activity.2 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO80397.
PRIDEiO80397.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO80397.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed higher in stems and leaves than in flowers and roots.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiO80397. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with ASK7/BIN2 (PubMed:23341468). Interacts with P.syringae type III effector HopF2 (PubMed:20571112). Interacts with MPK6 (PubMed:19513235). Interacts with RACK1A, RACK1B and RACK1C (PubMed:25731164).4 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi26816. 14 interactions.
IntActiO80397. 9 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT1G51660.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO80397.
SMRiO80397. Positions 54-363.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini79 – 334256Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Contains 1 protein kinase domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0581. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ5A. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000234206.
InParanoidiO80397.
KOiK13413.
OMAiHIATEPL.
PhylomeDBiO80397.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

O80397-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRPIQSPPGV SVPVKSRPRR RPDLTLPLPQ RDVSLAVPLP LPPTSGGSGG
60 70 80 90 100
SSGSAPSSGG SASSTNTNSS IEAKNYSDLV RGNRIGSGAG GTVYKVIHRP
110 120 130 140 150
SSRLYALKVI YGNHEETVRR QICREIEILR DVNHPNVVKC HEMFDQNGEI
160 170 180 190 200
QVLLEFMDKG SLEGAHVWKE QQLADLSRQI LSGLAYLHSR HIVHRDIKPS
210 220 230 240 250
NLLINSAKNV KIADFGVSRI LAQTMDPCNS SVGTIAYMSP ERINTDLNQG
260 270 280 290 300
KYDGYAGDIW SLGVSILEFY LGRFPFPVSR QGDWASLMCA ICMSQPPEAP
310 320 330 340 350
ATASPEFRHF ISCCLQREPG KRRSAMQLLQ HPFILRASPS QNRSPQNLHQ
360
LLPPPRPLSS SSSPTT
Length:366
Mass (Da):40,117
Last modified:November 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i34C1CA3EEA19D07C
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015315 mRNA. Translation: BAA28830.1.
AC025294 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG50863.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE32696.1.
AF324667 mRNA. Translation: AAG40018.1.
AF326878 mRNA. Translation: AAG41460.1.
AF349517 mRNA. Translation: AAK15564.1.
AF375398 mRNA. Translation: AAK52982.1.
AY129469 mRNA. Translation: AAM91055.1.
PIRiT51339.
RefSeqiNP_175577.1. NM_104044.2.
UniGeneiAt.351.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.
GeneIDi841591.
GrameneiAT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.
KEGGiath:AT1G51660.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015315 mRNA. Translation: BAA28830.1.
AC025294 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG50863.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE32696.1.
AF324667 mRNA. Translation: AAG40018.1.
AF326878 mRNA. Translation: AAG41460.1.
AF349517 mRNA. Translation: AAK15564.1.
AF375398 mRNA. Translation: AAK52982.1.
AY129469 mRNA. Translation: AAM91055.1.
PIRiT51339.
RefSeqiNP_175577.1. NM_104044.2.
UniGeneiAt.351.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO80397.
SMRiO80397. Positions 54-363.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi26816. 14 interactions.
IntActiO80397. 9 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT1G51660.1.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO80397.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO80397.
PRIDEiO80397.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.
GeneIDi841591.
GrameneiAT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.1; AT1G51660.
KEGGiath:AT1G51660.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G51660.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0581. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XQ5A. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000234206.
InParanoidiO80397.
KOiK13413.
OMAiHIATEPL.
PhylomeDBiO80397.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G51660-MONOMER.
ReactomeiR-ATH-110056. MAPK3 (ERK1) activation.
R-ATH-112411. MAPK1 (ERK2) activation.
R-ATH-2559580. Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence.
R-ATH-445144. Signal transduction by L1.
R-ATH-450302. activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation.
R-ATH-450321. JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1.
R-ATH-5674135. MAP2K and MAPK activation.
R-ATH-5674499. Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiO80397.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiO80397. AT.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011009. Kinase-like_dom.
IPR000719. Prot_kinase_dom.
IPR017441. Protein_kinase_ATP_BS.
IPR008271. Ser/Thr_kinase_AS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00069. Pkinase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00220. S_TKc. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF56112. SSF56112. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit.
PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit.
PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Ichimura K., Mizoguchi T., Hayashida N., Seki M., Shinozaki K.
    DNA Res. 5:341-348(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Cell death mediated by MAPK is associated with hydrogen peroxide production in Arabidopsis."
    Ren D., Yang H., Zhang S.
    J. Biol. Chem. 277:559-565(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF LYS-108; THR-224 AND SER-230.
  6. Cited for: FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, PHOSPHORYLATION AT THR-224 AND SER-230, MUTAGENESIS OF LYS-108; THR-224 AND SER-230.
  7. "Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in plants: a new nomenclature."
    MAPK group
    Trends Plant Sci. 7:301-308(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GENE FAMILY, NOMENCLATURE.
  8. Cited for: GENE FAMILY.
  9. "Stomatal development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis."
    Wang H., Ngwenyama N., Liu Y., Walker J.C., Zhang S.
    Plant Cell 19:63-73(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  10. "Surviving the passage: Non-canonical stromal targeting of an Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase."
    Samuel M.A., Chaal B.K., Lampard G., Green B.R., Ellis B.E.
    Plant Signal. Behav. 3:6-12(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  11. "Comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions between Arabidopsis MAPKs and MAPK kinases helps define potential MAPK signalling modules."
    Lee J.S., Huh K.W., Bhargava A., Ellis B.E.
    Plant Signal. Behav. 3:1037-1041(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH MPK6.
  12. Cited for: DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, FUNCTION.
  13. "A Pseudomonas syringae ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibits Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases."
    Wang Y., Li J., Hou S., Wang X., Li Y., Ren D., Chen S., Tang X., Zhou J.M.
    Plant Cell 22:2033-2044(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH P.SYRINGAE HOPF2.
  14. "Arabidopsis MKK4 mediates osmotic-stress response via its regulation of MPK3 activity."
    Kim S.H., Woo D.H., Kim J.M., Lee S.Y., Chung W.S., Moon Y.H.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 412:150-154(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  15. "A MAPK cascade downstream of ERECTA receptor-like protein kinase regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture by promoting localized cell proliferation."
    Meng X., Wang H., He Y., Liu Y., Walker J.C., Torii K.U., Zhang S.
    Plant Cell 24:4948-4960(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  16. "Brassinosteroid-regulated GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases, which control stomata development in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Khan M., Rozhon W., Bigeard J., Pflieger D., Husar S., Pitzschke A., Teige M., Jonak C., Hirt H., Poppenberger B.
    J. Biol. Chem. 288:7519-7527(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, ENZYME REGULATION, INTERACTION WITH ASK7/BIN2, MUTAGENESIS OF SER-230 AND THR-234, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY, PHOSPHORYLATION AT SER-6; SER-230 AND THR-234, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  17. Cited for: INTERACTION WITH RACK1A; RACK1B AND RACK1C.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiM2K4_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O80397
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2006
Last sequence update: November 1, 1998
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 121 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.