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O75223

- GGCT_HUMAN

UniProt

O75223 - GGCT_HUMAN

Protein

Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase

Gene

GGCT

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli
    • BLAST
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    • History
      Entry version 106 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Nov 1998)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides and may play a significant role in glutathione homeostasis. Induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with resultant induction of apoptosis.2 Publications

    Catalytic activityi

    (Gamma-L-glutamyl)-L-amino acid = 5-oxoproline + L-amino acid.

    Kineticsi

    1. KM=2.0 mM for gamma-glutamyl-L-alanine

    Vmax=50.3 µmol/min/mg enzyme

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei98 – 981Proton acceptorBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
    2. protein homodimerization activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. glutathione biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
    2. glutathione derivative biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
    3. release of cytochrome c from mitochondria Source: UniProtKB
    4. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
    5. xenobiotic metabolic process Source: Reactome

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Acyltransferase, Transferase

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiREACT_6960. Glutathione synthesis and recycling.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase (EC:2.3.2.4)
    Alternative name(s):
    Cytochrome c-releasing factor 21
    Gene namesi
    Name:GGCT
    Synonyms:C7orf24, CRF21
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 7

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:21705. GGCT.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. cytosol Source: UniProtKB
    2. extracellular vesicular exosome Source: UniProt

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Mutagenesisi23 – 231G → A: Marked decrease in catalytic efficiency. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi98 – 981E → A or Q: Abolishes activity without altering structure. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi105 – 1051Y → F: Marked decrease in catalytic efficiency and specific activity. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi125 – 1251Y → F: Little or no change in reaction kinetics. 1 Publication

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA162389392.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 188188Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferasePRO_0000089580Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Modified residuei173 – 1731PhosphoserineBy similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Phosphoprotein

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBiO75223.
    PaxDbiO75223.
    PeptideAtlasiO75223.
    PRIDEiO75223.

    2D gel databases

    OGPiO75223.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSiteiO75223.

    Expressioni

    Inductioni

    By geranylgeraniol.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiO75223.
    BgeeiO75223.
    CleanExiHS_GGCT.
    GenevestigatoriO75223.

    Organism-specific databases

    HPAiHPA020735.
    HPA029914.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.2 Publications

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi122486. 3 interactions.
    IntActiO75223. 4 interactions.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000275428.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    188
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Beta strandi16 – 216
    Helixi24 – 263
    Helixi28 – 347
    Beta strandi39 – 5618
    Turni62 – 643
    Beta strandi68 – 8720
    Helixi88 – 903
    Helixi91 – 977
    Helixi100 – 1023
    Beta strandi106 – 1149
    Beta strandi119 – 1268
    Beta strandi128 – 1325
    Helixi137 – 14913
    Helixi154 – 1618
    Helixi174 – 1818

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    2I5TX-ray2.01A/B2-188[»]
    2PN7X-ray2.41A/B1-188[»]
    2Q53X-ray2.01A/B2-188[»]
    2RBHX-ray2.10A/B1-188[»]
    3CRYX-ray1.70A/B1-188[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliO75223.
    SMRiO75223. Positions 15-183.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiO75223.

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni19 – 224Substrate bindingBy similarity

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG87076.
    HOGENOMiHOG000008049.
    HOVERGENiHBG050922.
    InParanoidiO75223.
    KOiK00682.
    OMAiKKVICMG.
    OrthoDBiEOG7H1JNT.
    PhylomeDBiO75223.
    TreeFamiTF314378.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.10.490.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR013024. Butirosin_synth_BtrG-like.
    IPR017939. G-Glutamylcylcotransferase.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR12935. PTHR12935. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMiSSF110857. SSF110857. 1 hit.

    Sequences (4)i

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    This entry describes 4 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

    Isoform 1 (identifier: O75223-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

    « Hide

    MANSGCKDVT GPDEESFLYF AYGSNLLTER IHLRNPSAAF FCVARLQDFK    50
    LDFGNSQGKT SQTWHGGIAT IFQSPGDEVW GVVWKMNKSN LNSLDEQEGV 100
    KSGMYVVIEV KVATQEGKEI TCRSYLMTNY ESAPPSPQYK KIICMGAKEN 150
    GLPLEYQEKL KAIEPNDYTG KVSEEIEDII KKGETQTL 188
    Length:188
    Mass (Da):21,008
    Last modified:November 1, 1998 - v1
    Checksum:i88B5C6F67F31C56C
    GO
    Isoform 2 (identifier: O75223-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         97-114: QEGVKSGMYVVIEVKVAT → LFAWVQKKMVCRWSIKRS
         115-188: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available.

    Show »
    Length:114
    Mass (Da):12,943
    Checksum:i45207EF9348A6A72
    GO
    Isoform 3 (identifier: O75223-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         48-141: Missing.

    Note: No experimental confirmation available. Gene prediction based on EST data.

    Show »
    Length:94
    Mass (Da):10,504
    Checksum:i8E15402CE6521BCC
    GO
    Isoform 4 (identifier: O75223-4) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
         97-188: QEGVKSGMYV...IIKKGETQTL → WRKKRHTAFQ...MVCRWSIKRS

    Note: No experimental confirmation available. Gene prediction based on EST data.

    Show »
    Length:166
    Mass (Da):19,092
    Checksum:iD0D2773376F33287
    GO

    Alternative sequence

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Alternative sequencei48 – 14194Missing in isoform 3. CuratedVSP_046463Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei97 – 18892QEGVK…ETQTL → WRKKRHTAFQNQGNHPCKHK TRMWDRDPKIPVQNLSLALC WQAQSGHGTCNRLFAWVQKK MVCRWSIKRS in isoform 4. CuratedVSP_046464Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei97 – 11418QEGVK…VKVAT → LFAWVQKKMVCRWSIKRS in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_035599Add
    BLAST
    Alternative sequencei115 – 18874Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_035600Add
    BLAST

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AK315608 mRNA. Translation: BAG37977.1.
    AC005154 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93950.1.
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93952.1.
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93953.1.
    BC000625 mRNA. Translation: AAH00625.1.
    BC005356 mRNA. Translation: AAH05356.1.
    BC013937 mRNA. Translation: AAH13937.1.
    BC019243 mRNA. Translation: AAH19243.1.
    CCDSiCCDS5428.1. [O75223-1]
    CCDS56474.1. [O75223-3]
    CCDS56475.1. [O75223-2]
    CCDS56476.1. [O75223-4]
    RefSeqiNP_001186744.1. NM_001199815.1. [O75223-4]
    NP_001186745.1. NM_001199816.1. [O75223-2]
    NP_001186746.1. NM_001199817.1. [O75223-3]
    NP_076956.1. NM_024051.3. [O75223-1]
    UniGeneiHs.530024.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000005374; ENSP00000005374; ENSG00000006625. [O75223-2]
    ENST00000275428; ENSP00000275428; ENSG00000006625. [O75223-1]
    ENST00000409144; ENSP00000386610; ENSG00000006625. [O75223-3]
    ENST00000409390; ENSP00000387235; ENSG00000006625. [O75223-4]
    GeneIDi79017.
    KEGGihsa:79017.
    UCSCiuc003tba.3. human. [O75223-1]
    uc003tbb.3. human. [O75223-2]
    uc022abe.1. human.

    Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

    Alternative splicing

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AK315608 mRNA. Translation: BAG37977.1 .
    AC005154 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93950.1 .
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93952.1 .
    CH471073 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW93953.1 .
    BC000625 mRNA. Translation: AAH00625.1 .
    BC005356 mRNA. Translation: AAH05356.1 .
    BC013937 mRNA. Translation: AAH13937.1 .
    BC019243 mRNA. Translation: AAH19243.1 .
    CCDSi CCDS5428.1. [O75223-1 ]
    CCDS56474.1. [O75223-3 ]
    CCDS56475.1. [O75223-2 ]
    CCDS56476.1. [O75223-4 ]
    RefSeqi NP_001186744.1. NM_001199815.1. [O75223-4 ]
    NP_001186745.1. NM_001199816.1. [O75223-2 ]
    NP_001186746.1. NM_001199817.1. [O75223-3 ]
    NP_076956.1. NM_024051.3. [O75223-1 ]
    UniGenei Hs.530024.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBe
    RCSB PDB
    PDBj
    Links Updated
    Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
    2I5T X-ray 2.01 A/B 2-188 [» ]
    2PN7 X-ray 2.41 A/B 1-188 [» ]
    2Q53 X-ray 2.01 A/B 2-188 [» ]
    2RBH X-ray 2.10 A/B 1-188 [» ]
    3CRY X-ray 1.70 A/B 1-188 [» ]
    ProteinModelPortali O75223.
    SMRi O75223. Positions 15-183.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 122486. 3 interactions.
    IntActi O75223. 4 interactions.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000275428.

    PTM databases

    PhosphoSitei O75223.

    2D gel databases

    OGPi O75223.

    Proteomic databases

    MaxQBi O75223.
    PaxDbi O75223.
    PeptideAtlasi O75223.
    PRIDEi O75223.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 79017.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000005374 ; ENSP00000005374 ; ENSG00000006625 . [O75223-2 ]
    ENST00000275428 ; ENSP00000275428 ; ENSG00000006625 . [O75223-1 ]
    ENST00000409144 ; ENSP00000386610 ; ENSG00000006625 . [O75223-3 ]
    ENST00000409390 ; ENSP00000387235 ; ENSG00000006625 . [O75223-4 ]
    GeneIDi 79017.
    KEGGi hsa:79017.
    UCSCi uc003tba.3. human. [O75223-1 ]
    uc003tbb.3. human. [O75223-2 ]
    uc022abe.1. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 79017.
    GeneCardsi GC07M030536.
    HGNCi HGNC:21705. GGCT.
    HPAi HPA020735.
    HPA029914.
    MIMi 137170. gene.
    neXtProti NX_O75223.
    PharmGKBi PA162389392.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG87076.
    HOGENOMi HOG000008049.
    HOVERGENi HBG050922.
    InParanoidi O75223.
    KOi K00682.
    OMAi KKVICMG.
    OrthoDBi EOG7H1JNT.
    PhylomeDBi O75223.
    TreeFami TF314378.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactomei REACT_6960. Glutathione synthesis and recycling.

    Miscellaneous databases

    ChiTaRSi GGCT. human.
    EvolutionaryTracei O75223.
    GenomeRNAii 79017.
    NextBioi 67678.
    PROi O75223.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi O75223.
    Bgeei O75223.
    CleanExi HS_GGCT.
    Genevestigatori O75223.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 3.10.490.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR013024. Butirosin_synth_BtrG-like.
    IPR017939. G-Glutamylcylcotransferase.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR12935. PTHR12935. 1 hit.
    SUPFAMi SSF110857. SSF110857. 1 hit.
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
      Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
      , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
      Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
      Tissue: Skeletal muscle.
    2. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7."
      Hillier L.W., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Graves T.A., Pepin K.H., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Maas J., Jaeger S., Walker R., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., O'Laughlin M.D., Schaller M.E., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L.
      , Nash W.E., Cordes M., Du H., Sun H., Edwards J., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Andrews S., Isak A., Vanbrunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Lamar B., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Bielicki L., Scott K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Harris A., Strong C.M., Hou S., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Leonard S., Rohlfing T., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Abbott A., Minx P., Maupin R., Strowmatt C., Latreille P., Miller N., Johnson D., Murray J., Woessner J.P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Schultz B.R., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Nelson J.O., Berkowicz N., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Bedell J.A., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Chissoe S.L., Marra M.A., Raymond C., Haugen E., Gillett W., Zhou Y., James R., Phelps K., Iadanoto S., Bubb K., Simms E., Levy R., Clendenning J., Kaul R., Kent W.J., Furey T.S., Baertsch R.A., Brent M.R., Keibler E., Flicek P., Bork P., Suyama M., Bailey J.A., Portnoy M.E., Torrents D., Chinwalla A.T., Gish W.R., Eddy S.R., McPherson J.D., Olson M.V., Eichler E.E., Green E.D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
      Nature 424:157-164(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2).
      Tissue: Kidney, Lung, Skin and Urinary bladder.
    5. "A novel 21-kDa cytochrome c-releasing factor is generated upon treatment of human leukemia U937 cells with geranylgeraniol."
      Masuda Y., Maeda S., Watanabe A., Sano Y., Aiuchi T., Nakajo S., Itabe H., Nakaya K.
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 346:454-460(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY, FUNCTION, INDUCTION.
    6. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    7. "The identification and structural characterization of C7orf24 as gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase: an essential enzyme in the gamma-glutamyl cycle."
      Oakley A.J., Yamada T., Liu D., Coggan M., Clark A.G., Board P.G.
      J. Biol. Chem. 283:22031-22042(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (1.70 ANGSTROMS), IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY, FUNCTION, SUBUNIT, ACTIVE SITE, MUTAGENESIS OF GLY-23; GLU-98; TYR-105 AND TYR-125.
    8. "Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017."
      Bae E., Bingman C.A., Aceti D.J., Phillips G.N. Jr.
      Proteins 70:588-591(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.01 ANGSTROMS) OF 2-188, SUBUNIT.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGGCT_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O75223
    Secondary accession number(s): B2RDN0
    , B8ZZN4, B8ZZR8, Q9BS37
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: August 22, 2003
    Last sequence update: November 1, 1998
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 106 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome 7
      Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    3. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    4. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3