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Protein

Protein Vpr

Gene

vpr

Organism
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 3 out of 5-Protein inferred from homologyi

Functioni

During virus replication, may deplete host UNG protein, and incude G2-M cell cycle arrest. Acts by targeting specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, through association with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex by direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the VPR carried into the virion. Additionally, VPR induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, VPR may also induce cell death to bystander cells.UniRule annotation
During virus entry, plays a role in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the host nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.UniRule annotation

Miscellaneous

HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Cameroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).UniRule annotation

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionActivator, Ion channel
Biological processApoptosis, Cell cycle, Host G2/M cell cycle arrest by virus, Host-virus interaction, Ion transport, Modulation of host cell cycle by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Transport, Viral penetration into host nucleus, Virus entry into host cell

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein VprUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
R ORF proteinUniRule annotation
Viral protein RUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:vprUniRule annotation
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype F1 (isolate 93BR020) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri388814 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
Proteomesi
  • UP000007687 Componenti: Chromosome

Subcellular locationi

  • Virion UniRule annotation
  • Host nucleus UniRule annotation
  • Host extracellular space UniRule annotation

  • Note: Incorporation into virion is dependent on p6 GAG sequences. Lacks a canonical nuclear localization signal, thus import into nucleus may function independently of the human importin pathway. Detected in high quantity in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient.UniRule annotation

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host nucleus, Virion

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei

AIDS

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002467541 – 96Protein VprAdd BLAST96

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei79Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation1
Modified residuei94Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation1
Modified residuei96Phosphoserine; by hostUniRule annotation1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated on several residues by host. These phosphorylations regulate VPR activity for the nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex.UniRule annotation

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homooligomer, may form homodimer. Interacts with p6-gag region of the Pr55 Gag precursor protein through a (Leu-X-X)4 motif near the C-terminus of the P6gag protein. Interacts with host UNG. May interact with host RAD23A/HHR23A. Interacts with host VPRBP/DCAF1, leading to hijack the CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DCAF1/VPRBP complex, mediating ubiquitination of host proteins such as TERT and ZGPAT and arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase.UniRule annotation

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO70888.
SMRiO70888.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Regioni1 – 42HomooligomerizationUniRule annotationAdd BLAST42

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPR protein family.UniRule annotation

Phylogenomic databases

OrthoDBiVOG090001DK.

Family and domain databases

HAMAPiMF_04080. HIV_VPR. 1 hit.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR000012. RetroV_VpR/X.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00522. VPR. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00444. HIVVPRVPX.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

O70888-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MEQAPEDQGP QREPYNEWTL DLLEELKNEA VRHFPRPWLH SLGQHIYNTY
60 70 80 90
GDTWEGVEAI IRILQQLLFI HFRIGCRHSR IGITRQRRVR NGTSRS
Length:96
Mass (Da):11,464
Last modified:August 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i7A9DBD8D4CC59A17
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF005494 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD03171.1.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiVPR_HV193
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O70888
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 25, 2006
Last sequence update: August 1, 1998
Last modified: August 30, 2017
This is version 82 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families