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Protein

Fractalkine

Gene

Cx3cl1

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Acts as a ligand for both CX3CL1 and integrins. Binds to CX3CR1 and to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1. Can activate integrins in both a CX3CR1-dependent and CX3CR1-independent manner. In the presence of CX3CR1, activates integrins by binding to the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) in integrins. In the absence of CX3CR1, binds to a second site (site 2) in integrins which is distinct from site 1 and enhances the binding of other integrin ligands to site 1. The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils. The membrane-bound form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells. May play a role in regulating leukocyte adhesion and migration processes at the endothelium.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • aging Source: RGD
  • cell adhesion Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • cellular response to interferon-gamma Source: GO_Central
  • cellular response to interleukin-1 Source: GO_Central
  • cellular response to tumor necrosis factor Source: GO_Central
  • chemokine-mediated signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • chemotaxis Source: RGD
  • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: GO_Central
  • inflammatory response Source: GO_Central
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential Source: RGD
  • integrin activation Source: UniProtKB
  • leukocyte adhesive activation Source: InterPro
  • leukocyte migration involved in inflammatory response Source: UniProtKB
  • lymphocyte chemotaxis Source: GO_Central
  • microglial cell activation Source: RGD
  • monocyte chemotaxis Source: GO_Central
  • negative regulation of cytokine secretion Source: RGD
  • negative regulation of vasoconstriction Source: RGD
  • neutrophil chemotaxis Source: GO_Central
  • platelet activation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of cell adhesion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of cell migration Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of GTPase activity Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response Source: GO_Central
  • positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation Source: RGD
  • response to hypoxia Source: RGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Cytokine

Keywords - Biological processi

Cell adhesion, Chemotaxis

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Fractalkine
Alternative name(s):
C-X3-C motif chemokine 1
CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine
Neurotactin
Small-inducible cytokine D1
Cleaved into the following chain:
Gene namesi
Name:Cx3cl1
Synonyms:Acc1, Fkn, Scyd1
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

RGDi620458. Cx3cl1.

Subcellular locationi

Processed fractalkine :
  • Secreted By similarity

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini25 – 337313ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei338 – 35821HelicalSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini359 – 39335CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cell projection Source: RGD
  • cytoplasm Source: RGD
  • extracellular space Source: GO_Central
  • integral component of membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: RGD
  • plasma membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
  • postsynapse Source: GOC
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane, Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2424Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini25 – 393369FractalkinePRO_0000005254Add
BLAST
Chaini25 – ?335311Processed fractalkinePRO_0000296226Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi32 ↔ 58By similarity
Glycosylationi33 – 331N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence analysis
Disulfide bondi36 ↔ 74By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

A soluble short form may be released by proteolytic cleavage from the long membrane-anchored form.By similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei335 – 3362Cleavage; to produce soluble formSequence analysis

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO55145.
PRIDEiO55145.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highest levels in brain (neurons). Significant levels in kidney, heart, lung and adrenal gland.2 Publications

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Monomer. Forms a ternary complex with CX3CR1 and ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA4:ITGB1.By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi250131. 1 interaction.
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000022128.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO55145.
SMRiO55145. Positions 25-100.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni25 – 10076Chemokine and involved in interaction with ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1By similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni101 – 337237Mucin-like stalkAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the intercrine delta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IJQZ. Eukaryota.
ENOG41116BY. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000036946.
HOVERGENiHBG057269.
InParanoidiO55145.
KOiK05508.
PhylomeDBiO55145.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom.
IPR008097. CX3CL1.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR12015:SF92. PTHR12015:SF92. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00048. IL8. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00199. SCY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54117. SSF54117. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

O55145-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAPSQLAWLL RLAAFFHLCT LLAGQHLGMT KCNITCHKMT SPIPVTLLIH
60 70 80 90 100
YQLNQESCGK RAIILETRQH RHFCADPKEK WVQDAMKHLD HQTAALTRNG
110 120 130 140 150
GKFEKRVDNV TPRITSATRG LSPTALAKPE SATVEDLTLE PTAISQEARR
160 170 180 190 200
PMGTSQEPPA AVTGSSPSTS KAQDAGLAAK PQSTGISEVA AVSTTIWPSS
210 220 230 240 250
AVYQSGSSLW AEEKATESPP TIALSTQAST TSSPKQNVGS EGQPPWVQEQ
260 270 280 290 300
DSTPEKSPGP EETNPVHTDI FQDRGPGSTV HPSVAPTSSE KTPSPELVAS
310 320 330 340 350
GSQAPKVEEP IHATADPQKL SVFITPVPDS QAATRRQAVG LLAFLGLLFC
360 370 380 390
LGVAMFAYQS LQGCPRKMAG EMVEGLRYVP RSCGSNSYVL VPV
Length:393
Mass (Da):41,977
Last modified:August 14, 2001 - v3
Checksum:iF06BB027CBD8CE14
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF030358 mRNA. Translation: AAC33834.2.
Y16813 mRNA. Translation: CAA76404.1.
RefSeqiNP_604450.1. NM_134455.1.
UniGeneiRn.107266.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi89808.
KEGGirno:89808.
UCSCiRGD:620458. rat.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF030358 mRNA. Translation: AAC33834.2.
Y16813 mRNA. Translation: CAA76404.1.
RefSeqiNP_604450.1. NM_134455.1.
UniGeneiRn.107266.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO55145.
SMRiO55145. Positions 25-100.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi250131. 1 interaction.
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000022128.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO55145.
PRIDEiO55145.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi89808.
KEGGirno:89808.
UCSCiRGD:620458. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi6376.
RGDi620458. Cx3cl1.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IJQZ. Eukaryota.
ENOG41116BY. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000036946.
HOVERGENiHBG057269.
InParanoidiO55145.
KOiK05508.
PhylomeDBiO55145.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiO55145.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001811. Chemokine_IL8-like_dom.
IPR008097. CX3CL1.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR12015:SF92. PTHR12015:SF92. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00048. IL8. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00199. SCY. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF54117. SSF54117. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Role for neuronally derived fractalkine in mediating interactions between neurons and CX3CR1-expressing microglia."
    Harrison J.K., Jiang Y., Chen S., Xia Y., Maciejewski D., McNamara R.K., Streit W.J., Salafranca M.N., Adhikari S., Thompson D.A., Botti P., Bacon K.B., Feng L.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:10896-10901(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    Tissue: Brain.
  2. Feng L., Harrison J.K.
    Submitted (MAY-1999) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: SEQUENCE REVISION TO 127-151.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 204-335, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiX3CL1_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O55145
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1999
Last sequence update: August 14, 2001
Last modified: July 6, 2016
This is version 114 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.