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Protein

Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase cytoplasmic

Gene

GLX2-2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Thiolesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoyl-glutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid.3 Publications

Catalytic activityi

S-(2-hydroxyacyl)glutathione + H2O = glutathione + a 2-hydroxy carboxylate.2 Publications

Cofactori

Fe2+1 Publication, Zn2+1 Publication, Fe3+1 PublicationNote: Binds 1 Fe2+ or Fe3+ and 1 Zn2+ ion per subunit, catalysis is optimal with 1 Fe and 1 Zn. Electron spin resonance indicates the presence of a mixture of protein molecules that contain either Fe2+ or Fe3+ and Zn2+. Mn2+ is not a cofactor (PubMed:19834746).1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=220 µM for S-D-lactoylglutathion1 Publication

    Pathwayi: methylglyoxal degradation

    This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes (R)-lactate from methylglyoxal.
    Proteins known to be involved in the 2 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Lactoylglutathione lyase (GLX1), Lactoylglutathione lyase (At1g08110), Lactoylglutathione lyase (At1g11840), Lactoylglutathione lyase (F12F1.32), Lactoylglutathione lyase (GLX1), Lactoylglutathione lyase (AXX17_At1g07880), Probable lactoylglutathione lyase, chloroplastic (At1g67280), Lactoylglutathione lyase (At1g08110), Lactoylglutathione lyase (At1g11840), Lactoylglutathione lyase (At1g08110)
    2. Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase cytoplasmic (GLX2-2), Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase 2, mitochondrial (At2g31350), Probable hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase 2, chloroplastic (GLX2-4), Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase 1, mitochondrial (GLX2-1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway methylglyoxal degradation, which is itself part of Secondary metabolite metabolism.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes (R)-lactate from methylglyoxal, the pathway methylglyoxal degradation and in Secondary metabolite metabolism.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Metal bindingi54Zinc; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi56Zinc; via pros nitrogenBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi58IronBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi59Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi112Zinc; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi135IronBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi135ZincBy similarity1
    Metal bindingi174Iron; via tele nitrogenBy similarity1

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hydrolase

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Iron, Metal-binding, Zinc

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BRENDAi3.1.2.6. 399.
    ReactomeiR-ATH-70268. Pyruvate metabolism.
    SABIO-RKO24496.
    UniPathwayiUPA00619; UER00676.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase cytoplasmic (EC:3.1.2.62 Publications)
    Alternative name(s):
    Glyoxalase II
    Short name:
    Glx II
    Gene namesi
    Name:GLX2-2
    Synonyms:GLY2
    Ordered Locus Names:At3g10850
    ORF Names:T7M13.7
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT3G10850.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • cytosol Source: TAIR
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Cytoplasm

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Mutagenesisi54H → N: Binds normal amount of metal, but reduced enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi58D → C: Binds normal amount of metal, but reduced enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi142C → A: Increases the metal content and the enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi144K → A: Binds normal amount of metal, but reduced enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi180N → A: 70% reduction in enzyme activity. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi227R → A: Decreases metal binding and enzyme stability. 1 Publication1
    Mutagenesisi250R → W: Decreases the substrate affinity. 1 Publication1

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    ChainiPRO_00001923471 – 258Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase cytoplasmicAdd BLAST258

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO24496.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiO24496.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Mainly expressed in flowers and flower buds. Also detected in roots and leaves.1 Publication

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiO24496. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiO24496. AT.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.Curated

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi5589. 3 interactors.
    STRINGi3702.AT3G10850.1.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO24496.
    SMRiO24496.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Regioni144 – 146Substrate bindingBy similarity3
    Regioni174 – 176Substrate bindingBy similarity3

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0813. Eukaryota.
    COG0491. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000058041.
    InParanoidiO24496.
    KOiK01069.
    OMAiHVKCLST.
    OrthoDBiEOG09360IJQ.
    PhylomeDBiO24496.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.60.15.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPiMF_01374. Glyoxalase_2. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR032282. HAGH_C.
    IPR017782. Hydroxyacylglutathione_Hdrlase.
    IPR001279. Metallo-B-lactamas.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF16123. HAGH_C. 1 hit.
    PF00753. Lactamase_B. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF005457. Glx. 1 hit.
    SMARTiSM00849. Lactamase_B. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF56281. SSF56281. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03413. GSH_gloB. 1 hit.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    O24496-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MKIFHVPCLQ DNYSYLIIDE STGDAAVVDP VDPEKVIASA EKHQAKIKFV
    60 70 80 90 100
    LTTHHHWDHA GGNEKIKQLV PDIKVYGGSL DKVKGCTDAV DNGDKLTLGQ
    110 120 130 140 150
    DINILALHTP CHTKGHISYY VNGKEGENPA VFTGDTLFVA GCGKFFEGTA
    160 170 180 190 200
    EQMYQSLCVT LAALPKPTQV YCGHEYTVKN LEFALTVEPN NGKIQQKLAW
    210 220 230 240 250
    ARQQRQADLP TIPSTLEEEL ETNPFMRVDK PEIQEKLGCK SPIDTMREVR

    NKKDQWRG
    Length:258
    Mass (Da):28,792
    Last modified:December 15, 1998 - v2
    Checksum:i6703B98A8F902B5A
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
    Sequence conflicti14S → T in AAC49867 (PubMed:9349270).Curated1
    Sequence conflicti85 – 93GCTDAVDNG → VALMRLIC in AAC49867 (PubMed:9349270).Curated9
    Sequence conflicti98 – 102LGQDI → WSGY in AAC49867 (PubMed:9349270).Curated5
    Sequence conflicti122N → T in AAC49867 (PubMed:9349270).Curated1

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U90929 mRNA. Translation: AAC49867.1.
    Y08357 mRNA. Translation: CAA69644.1.
    AC011708 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF19564.1.
    CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE74963.1.
    AY052329 mRNA. Translation: AAK96522.1.
    BT000849 mRNA. Translation: AAN38686.1.
    RefSeqiNP_187696.1. NM_111922.4.
    UniGeneiAt.47367.
    At.69008.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.
    GeneIDi820255.
    GrameneiAT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.
    KEGGiath:AT3G10850.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U90929 mRNA. Translation: AAC49867.1.
    Y08357 mRNA. Translation: CAA69644.1.
    AC011708 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF19564.1.
    CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE74963.1.
    AY052329 mRNA. Translation: AAK96522.1.
    BT000849 mRNA. Translation: AAN38686.1.
    RefSeqiNP_187696.1. NM_111922.4.
    UniGeneiAt.47367.
    At.69008.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO24496.
    SMRiO24496.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi5589. 3 interactors.
    STRINGi3702.AT3G10850.1.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiO24496.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO24496.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.
    GeneIDi820255.
    GrameneiAT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.1; AT3G10850.
    KEGGiath:AT3G10850.

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT3G10850.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiKOG0813. Eukaryota.
    COG0491. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000058041.
    InParanoidiO24496.
    KOiK01069.
    OMAiHVKCLST.
    OrthoDBiEOG09360IJQ.
    PhylomeDBiO24496.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00619; UER00676.
    BRENDAi3.1.2.6. 399.
    ReactomeiR-ATH-70268. Pyruvate metabolism.
    SABIO-RKO24496.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiO24496.

    Gene expression databases

    ExpressionAtlasiO24496. baseline and differential.
    GenevisibleiO24496. AT.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.60.15.10. 1 hit.
    HAMAPiMF_01374. Glyoxalase_2. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR032282. HAGH_C.
    IPR017782. Hydroxyacylglutathione_Hdrlase.
    IPR001279. Metallo-B-lactamas.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF16123. HAGH_C. 1 hit.
    PF00753. Lactamase_B. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF005457. Glx. 1 hit.
    SMARTiSM00849. Lactamase_B. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF56281. SSF56281. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR03413. GSH_gloB. 1 hit.
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGLO2C_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O24496
    Secondary accession number(s): O04844
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 15, 1998
    Last sequence update: December 15, 1998
    Last modified: November 30, 2016
    This is version 123 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.