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Protein

Aspartokinase 2, chloroplastic

Gene

AK2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the first step of essential amino acids lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine synthesis via the aspartate-family pathway.

Catalytic activityi

ATP + L-aspartate = ADP + 4-phospho-L-aspartate.

Enzyme regulationi

Allosterically inhibited by lysine, but not by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). K(0.5) for lysine in the presence of physiological concentrations of substrates is 12.5 µM. No inhibition by threonine or leucine and no activation or inhibition by alanine, cysteine, isoleucine, serine, valine, methionine, glutamine, asparagine, glutamic acid or arginine.1 Publication

Kineticsi

K(cat) is 14.5/sec.

  1. KM=980 µM for ATP1 Publication
  2. KM=1940 µM for aspartate1 Publication

    Pathway:iL-lysine biosynthesis via DAP pathway

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-tetrahydrodipicolinate from L-aspartate.
    Proteins known to be involved in the 4 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Aspartokinase 2, chloroplastic (AK2), Aspartokinase 1, chloroplastic (AK1), Aspartokinase 3, chloroplastic (AK3), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (AKHSDH2), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (AKHSDH1)
    2. no protein annotated in this organism
    3. 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase 1, chloroplastic (DHDPS1), 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase 2, chloroplastic (DHDPS2)
    4. 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase 2, chloroplastic (DAPB2), 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase 1, chloroplastic (DAPB1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway L-lysine biosynthesis via DAP pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-tetrahydrodipicolinate from L-aspartate, the pathway L-lysine biosynthesis via DAP pathway and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

    Pathway:iL-methionine biosynthesis via de novo pathway

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-homoserine from L-aspartate.
    Proteins known to be involved in the 3 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Aspartokinase 2, chloroplastic (AK2), Aspartokinase 1, chloroplastic (AK1), Aspartokinase 3, chloroplastic (AK3), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (AKHSDH2), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (AKHSDH1)
    2. no protein annotated in this organism
    3. Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Homoserine dehydrogenase, Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (AKHSDH2), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (AKHSDH1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway L-methionine biosynthesis via de novo pathway, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-homoserine from L-aspartate, the pathway L-methionine biosynthesis via de novo pathway and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

    Pathway:iL-threonine biosynthesis

    This protein is involved in step 1 of the subpathway that synthesizes L-threonine from L-aspartate.
    Proteins known to be involved in the 5 steps of the subpathway in this organism are:
    1. Aspartokinase 2, chloroplastic (AK2), Aspartokinase 1, chloroplastic (AK1), Aspartokinase 3, chloroplastic (AK3), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (AKHSDH2), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (AKHSDH1)
    2. no protein annotated in this organism
    3. Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Homoserine dehydrogenase, Homoserine dehydrogenase (At5g21060), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 2, chloroplastic (AKHSDH2), Bifunctional aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 1, chloroplastic (AKHSDH1)
    4. Homoserine kinase (HSK)
    5. Threonine synthase 2, chloroplastic (TS2), Threonine synthase 1, chloroplastic (TS1)
    This subpathway is part of the pathway L-threonine biosynthesis, which is itself part of Amino-acid biosynthesis.
    View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes L-threonine from L-aspartate, the pathway L-threonine biosynthesis and in Amino-acid biosynthesis.

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Binding sitei87 – 871ATPBy similarity
    Binding sitei90 – 901ATP; via amide nitrogenBy similarity
    Binding sitei119 – 1191ATPBy similarity
    Binding sitei203 – 2031SubstrateBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Kinase, Transferase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Amino-acid biosynthesis, Threonine biosynthesis

    Keywords - Ligandi

    ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT5G14060-MONOMER.
    ARA:GQT-2418-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.7.2.4. 399.
    SABIO-RKO23653.
    UniPathwayiUPA00034; UER00015.
    UPA00050; UER00461.
    UPA00051; UER00462.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Aspartokinase 2, chloroplastic (EC:2.7.2.4)
    Alternative name(s):
    Aspartate kinase 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:AK2
    Synonyms:AK-LYS2, CARAB-AK-LYS
    Ordered Locus Names:At5g14060
    ORF Names:MUA22.6
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    ProteomesiUP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT5G14060.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Chloroplast, Plastid

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transit peptidei1 – 8484ChloroplastSequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini85 – 544460Aspartokinase 2, chloroplasticPRO_0000248158Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO23653.
    PRIDEiO23653.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in stems, leaves, floral organs and young seedlings.1 Publication

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi3702.AT5G14060.1.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO23653.
    SMRiO23653. Positions 80-542.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Domaini401 – 47979ACT 1PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
    BLAST
    Domaini481 – 54464ACT 2PROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the aspartokinase family.Curated
    Contains 2 ACT domains.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Repeat, Transit peptide

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0527.
    HOGENOMiHOG000293094.
    InParanoidiO23653.
    KOiK00928.
    OMAiEENINAR.
    PhylomeDBiO23653.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.1160.10. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR002912. ACT_dom.
    IPR001048. Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase.
    IPR001341. Asp_kinase_dom.
    IPR018042. Aspartate_kinase_CS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00696. AA_kinase. 1 hit.
    PF01842. ACT. 2 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53633. SSF53633. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR00657. asp_kinases. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS51671. ACT. 2 hits.
    PS00324. ASPARTOKINASE. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    O23653-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MASLQLYGVK TPGLALSSKR LEFASKGACF SVTLPSSSAV FRDVEHSCRN
    60 70 80 90 100
    IGLRVSCEAL RVDLLQRKEP ETCDSSGTGK ELTCVMKFGG SSVESAERMK
    110 120 130 140 150
    EVANLILSFP DERPVIVLSA MGKTTNKLLK AGEKAVTCGV TNVESIEELS
    160 170 180 190 200
    FIKELHLRTA HELGVETTVI EKHLEGLHQL LKGISMMKEL TLRTRDYLVS
    210 220 230 240 250
    FGECMSTRLF SAYLNKIGHK ARQYDAFEIG FITTDDFTNA DILEATYPAV
    260 270 280 290 300
    SKTLVGDWSK ENAVPVVTGY LGKGWRSCAI TTLGRGGSDL TATTIGKALG
    310 320 330 340 350
    LREIQVWKDV DGVLTCDPNI YPGAQSVPYL TFDEAAELAY FGAQVLHPLS
    360 370 380 390 400
    MRPARDGDIP VRVKNSYNPT APGTVITRSR DMSKAVLTSI VLKRNVTMLD
    410 420 430 440 450
    IASTRMLGQY GFLAKVFTTF EDLGISVDVV ATSEVSISLT LDPAKLWGRE
    460 470 480 490 500
    LIQRVNELDN LVEELEKIAV VKLLQRRSII SLIGNVQKSS LILEKVFQVF
    510 520 530 540
    RSNGVNVQMI SQGASKVNIS LIVNDEEAEQ CVRALHSAFF ETDP
    Length:544
    Mass (Da):59,605
    Last modified:September 5, 2006 - v2
    Checksum:i7DBCFDC1138645AC
    GO

    Experimental Info

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Sequence conflicti94 – 941E → G in AAB63104 (PubMed:9207844).Curated
    Sequence conflicti94 – 941E → G in CAC06395 (Ref. 2) Curated
    Sequence conflicti107 – 1071L → F in AAB63104 (PubMed:9207844).Curated
    Sequence conflicti107 – 1071L → F in CAC06395 (Ref. 2) Curated
    Sequence conflicti125 – 1251T → I in AAB63104 (PubMed:9207844).Curated
    Sequence conflicti125 – 1251T → I in CAC06395 (Ref. 2) Curated
    Sequence conflicti144 – 1441E → G in AAB63104 (PubMed:9207844).Curated

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U62020 mRNA. Translation: AAB63104.1.
    Y16255 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC06395.1.
    AB007650 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08285.1.
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED91982.1.
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED91983.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001078581.1. NM_001085112.1.
    NP_196910.1. NM_121409.3.
    UniGeneiAt.21761.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT5G14060.1; AT5G14060.1; AT5G14060.
    AT5G14060.2; AT5G14060.2; AT5G14060.
    GeneIDi831255.
    KEGGiath:AT5G14060.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    U62020 mRNA. Translation: AAB63104.1.
    Y16255 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAC06395.1.
    AB007650 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAB08285.1.
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED91982.1.
    CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED91983.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001078581.1. NM_001085112.1.
    NP_196910.1. NM_121409.3.
    UniGeneiAt.21761.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO23653.
    SMRiO23653. Positions 80-542.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi3702.AT5G14060.1.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO23653.
    PRIDEiO23653.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT5G14060.1; AT5G14060.1; AT5G14060.
    AT5G14060.2; AT5G14060.2; AT5G14060.
    GeneIDi831255.
    KEGGiath:AT5G14060.

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT5G14060.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiCOG0527.
    HOGENOMiHOG000293094.
    InParanoidiO23653.
    KOiK00928.
    OMAiEENINAR.
    PhylomeDBiO23653.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00034; UER00015.
    UPA00050; UER00461.
    UPA00051; UER00462.
    BioCyciARA:AT5G14060-MONOMER.
    ARA:GQT-2418-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi2.7.2.4. 399.
    SABIO-RKO23653.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiO23653.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.1160.10. 2 hits.
    InterProiIPR002912. ACT_dom.
    IPR001048. Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase.
    IPR001341. Asp_kinase_dom.
    IPR018042. Aspartate_kinase_CS.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF00696. AA_kinase. 1 hit.
    PF01842. ACT. 2 hits.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF53633. SSF53633. 1 hit.
    TIGRFAMsiTIGR00657. asp_kinases. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS51671. ACT. 2 hits.
    PS00324. ASPARTOKINASE. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Publicationsi

    « Hide 'large scale' publications
    1. "Cloning and expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding a monofunctional aspartate kinase homologous to the lysine-sensitive enzyme of Escherichia coli."
      Tang G., Zhu-Shimoni J.X., Amir R., Zchori I.B.-T., Galili G.
      Plant Mol. Biol. 34:287-293(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    2. Frankard V.M.S., Vauterin M., Jacobs M.
      Submitted (JAN-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
      Tissue: Leaf.
    3. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. III. Sequence features of the regions of 1,191,918 bp covered by seventeen physically assigned P1 clones."
      Nakamura Y., Sato S., Kaneko T., Kotani H., Asamizu E., Miyajima N., Tabata S.
      DNA Res. 4:401-414(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
      Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    5. "Allosteric monofunctional aspartate kinases from Arabidopsis."
      Curien G., Laurencin M., Robert-Genthon M., Dumas R.
      FEBS J. 274:164-176(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, ENZYME REGULATION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiAK2_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O23653
    Secondary accession number(s): Q9FMU4, Q9FY44
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 5, 2006
    Last sequence update: September 5, 2006
    Last modified: July 22, 2015
    This is version 103 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.