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Protein

UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase 4

Gene

GAE4

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Involved in the synthesis of the negatively charged monosaccharide that forms the backbone of pectic cell wall components.

Catalytic activityi

UDP-glucuronate = UDP-D-galacturonate.

Enzyme regulationi

Activated by glycerol, not effected by dimethyl sulfoxide and inhibited by high concentration of monovalent salts, UDP-xylose, UDP-arabinose or UDP.1 Publication

Kineticsi

Equilibrium between UDP-glucuronate and UDP-D-galacturonate established at 1:1.9. No activity with UDP-Galactose, UDP-Glucose, UDP-arabinose, UDP-Xylose, CDP-glucose or GDP-manose.

  1. KM=0.72 mM for UDP-glucuronate1 Publication

    pH dependencei

    Optimum pH is 7.5. Active from pH 6.8 to 8.2.1 Publication

    Temperature dependencei

    Active between 20 and 55 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Active sitei248 – 2481Proton acceptorBy similarity

    Regions

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Nucleotide bindingi98 – 12932NADBy similarityAdd
    BLAST

    GO - Molecular functioni

    GO - Biological processi

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Isomerase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Carbohydrate metabolism

    Keywords - Ligandi

    NAD

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT2G45310-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:AT2G45310-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi5.1.3.6. 399.
    SABIO-RKO22141.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase 4 (EC:5.1.3.6)
    Alternative name(s):
    UDP-glucuronic acid epimerase 4
    Short name:
    AtUGlcAE1
    Gene namesi
    Name:GAE4
    Synonyms:UGlcAE1
    Ordered Locus Names:At2g45310
    ORF Names:F4L23
    OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
    Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
    Proteomesi
    • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 2

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT2G45310.

    Subcellular locationi

    Topology

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Transmembranei30 – 5021HelicalSequence analysisAdd
    BLAST
    Transmembranei96 – 11621HelicalSequence analysisAdd
    BLAST

    GO - Cellular componenti

    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Golgi apparatus, Membrane

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Chaini1 – 437437UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase 4PRO_0000292599Add
    BLAST

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO22141.
    PRIDEiO22141.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiO22141.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    In roots, leaves, siliques, flowers, pollen and stems.3 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    GenevisibleiO22141. AT.

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.1 Publication

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi3702.AT2G45310.1.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO22141.
    SMRiO22141. Positions 96-424.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Compositional bias

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Compositional biasi222 – 2254Poly-Ser

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Keywords - Domaini

    Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG410IU3F. Eukaryota.
    COG0451. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000168000.
    InParanoidiO22141.
    KOiK08679.
    OMAiIFESANH.
    PhylomeDBiO22141.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR001509. Epimerase_deHydtase_N.
    IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
    IPR008089. Nuc_sugar_epim.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF01370. Epimerase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR01713. NUCEPIMERASE.
    SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    O22141-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MSRLDDIPSS PGKFKMEKSS YLHRLRFQSS LTKFAFFSFF LLCLISLLFL
    60 70 80 90 100
    RSPPSINPSS PSDPSRRSLR TNTYGGPAWE KRLRSSARIR TSTNNGITVL
    110 120 130 140 150
    VTGAAGFVGT HVSAALKRRG DGVIGLDNFN DYYDPSLKRA RRALLERSGI
    160 170 180 190 200
    FIVEGDINDV ELLRKLFKIV SFTHVMHLAA QAGVRYAMEN PSSYVHSNIA
    210 220 230 240 250
    GFVNLLEICK SVNPQPAIVW ASSSSVYGLN TKVPFSEKDK TDQPASLYAA
    260 270 280 290 300
    TKKAGEEIAH TYNHIYGLSL TGLRFFTVYG PWGRPDMAYF FFTKDILKGK
    310 320 330 340 350
    SISIFESANH GTVARDFTYI DDIVKGCLAA LDTAEKSTGS GGKKRGPAQL
    360 370 380 390 400
    RVFNLGNTSP VPVSDLVRIL ERQLKVKAKK NLIKMPRNGD VPFTHANISL
    410 420 430
    AQRELGYKPT TDLQTGLKKF VRWYLSYYSG DKKAAAR
    Length:437
    Mass (Da):48,536
    Last modified:January 1, 1998 - v1
    Checksum:iFF8D60C56550CB41
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AY594693 mRNA. Translation: AAT06796.1.
    AC002387 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB82632.1.
    CP002685 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEC10537.1.
    BT005652 mRNA. Translation: AAO64072.1.
    BT004225 mRNA. Translation: AAO42241.1.
    PIRiA84889.
    RefSeqiNP_182056.1. NM_130094.2.
    UniGeneiAt.66419.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.
    GeneIDi819139.
    GrameneiAT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.
    KEGGiath:AT2G45310.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AY594693 mRNA. Translation: AAT06796.1.
    AC002387 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB82632.1.
    CP002685 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEC10537.1.
    BT005652 mRNA. Translation: AAO64072.1.
    BT004225 mRNA. Translation: AAO42241.1.
    PIRiA84889.
    RefSeqiNP_182056.1. NM_130094.2.
    UniGeneiAt.66419.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO22141.
    SMRiO22141. Positions 96-424.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    STRINGi3702.AT2G45310.1.

    PTM databases

    iPTMnetiO22141.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiO22141.
    PRIDEiO22141.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblPlantsiAT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.
    GeneIDi819139.
    GrameneiAT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.1; AT2G45310.
    KEGGiath:AT2G45310.

    Organism-specific databases

    TAIRiAT2G45310.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG410IU3F. Eukaryota.
    COG0451. LUCA.
    HOGENOMiHOG000168000.
    InParanoidiO22141.
    KOiK08679.
    OMAiIFESANH.
    PhylomeDBiO22141.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    BioCyciARA:AT2G45310-MONOMER.
    MetaCyc:AT2G45310-MONOMER.
    BRENDAi5.1.3.6. 399.
    SABIO-RKO22141.

    Miscellaneous databases

    PROiO22141.

    Gene expression databases

    GenevisibleiO22141. AT.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR001509. Epimerase_deHydtase_N.
    IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
    IPR008089. Nuc_sugar_epim.
    [Graphical view]
    PfamiPF01370. Epimerase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR01713. NUCEPIMERASE.
    SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Publicationsi

    « Hide 'large scale' publications
    1. "The biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid in plants. Functional cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis UDP-D-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase."
      Gu X., Bar-Peled M.
      Plant Physiol. 136:4256-4264(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], ENZYME REGULATION, SUBUNIT, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
    2. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
      Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
      Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
      Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
      , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
      Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Strain: cv. Columbia.
    5. "Molecular genetics of nucleotide sugar interconversion pathways in plants."
      Reiter W.-D., Vanzin G.F.
      Plant Mol. Biol. 47:95-113(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION, NOMENCLATURE.
    6. "The biosynthesis of D-galacturonate in plants. Functional cloning and characterization of a membrane-anchored UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase from Arabidopsis."
      Moelhoej M., Verma R., Reiter W.-D.
      Plant Physiol. 135:1221-1230(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: IDENTIFICATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
    7. "Identification and characterization of a UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase in Arabidopsis."
      Usadel B., Schlueter U., Moelhoej M., Gipmans M., Verma R., Kossmann J., Reiter W.-D., Pauly M.
      FEBS Lett. 569:327-331(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiGAE4_ARATH
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O22141
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 26, 2007
    Last sequence update: January 1, 1998
    Last modified: February 17, 2016
    This is version 103 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Arabidopsis thaliana
      Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.