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O19183

- PGH2_HORSE

UniProt

O19183 - PGH2_HORSE

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Protein

Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2

Gene

PTGS2

Organism
Equus caballus (Horse)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis By similarity.By similarity

Catalytic activityi

Arachidonate + AH2 + 2 O2 = prostaglandin H2 + A + H2O.

Cofactori

Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit.By similarity

Pathwayi

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei106 – 1061SubstrateBy similarity
Active sitei193 – 1931Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation
Binding sitei341 – 3411SubstrateBy similarity
Active sitei371 – 3711For cyclooxygenase activityBy similarity
Binding sitei371 – 3711SubstrateBy similarity
Metal bindingi374 – 3741Iron (heme axial ligand)PROSITE-ProRule annotation
Sitei516 – 5161Aspirin-acetylated serineBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. dioxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  2. heme binding Source: UniProtKB
  3. metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. peroxidase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
  5. prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. anagen Source: Ensembl
  2. brown fat cell differentiation Source: Ensembl
  3. cellular response to hypoxia Source: Ensembl
  4. cyclooxygenase pathway Source: UniProtKB
  5. inflammatory response Source: InterPro
  6. positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation Source: Ensembl
  7. positive regulation of fever generation Source: Ensembl
  8. prostaglandin biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  9. regulation of blood pressure Source: UniProtKB
  10. regulation of cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
  11. response to oxidative stress Source: InterPro
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Dioxygenase, Oxidoreductase, Peroxidase

Keywords - Biological processi

Fatty acid biosynthesis, Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid biosynthesis, Lipid metabolism, Prostaglandin biosynthesis, Prostaglandin metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

Heme, Iron, Metal-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00662.

Protein family/group databases

PeroxiBasei4123. EcabPGHS02.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (EC:1.14.99.1)
Alternative name(s):
Cyclooxygenase-2
Short name:
COX-2
PHS II
Prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
Short name:
PGH synthase 2
Short name:
PGHS-2
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Gene namesi
Name:PTGS2
Synonyms:COX2
OrganismiEquus caballus (Horse)
Taxonomic identifieri9796 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquus
ProteomesiUP000002281: Chromosome 5

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  2. endoplasmic reticulum Source: UniProtKB-KW
  3. membrane Source: UniProtKB-KW
  4. neuron projection Source: Ensembl
  5. nucleus Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Microsome

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 1717By similarityAdd
BLAST
Chaini18 – 604587Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2PRO_0000023874Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Disulfide bondi21 ↔ 32By similarity
Disulfide bondi22 ↔ 145By similarity
Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 42By similarity
Disulfide bondi44 ↔ 54By similarity
Glycosylationi53 – 531N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi130 – 1301N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi396 – 3961N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Modified residuei526 – 5261S-nitrosocysteineBy similarity
Disulfide bondi555 ↔ 561By similarity
Glycosylationi580 – 5801N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Post-translational modificationi

S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues in addition to Cys-526 By similarity.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, S-nitrosylation

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO19183.
SMRiO19183. Positions 18-569.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini18 – 5538EGF-likePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.Curated
Contains 1 EGF-like domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG39991.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010743.
HOGENOMiHOG000013149.
HOVERGENiHBG000366.
InParanoidiO19183.
KOiK11987.
OMAiICNNVKG.
OrthoDBiEOG7RFTHC.
TreeFamiTF329675.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.640.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR029576. COX-2.
IPR000742. EG-like_dom.
IPR010255. Haem_peroxidase.
IPR019791. Haem_peroxidase_animal.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11903:SF8. PTHR11903:SF8. 1 hit.
PfamiPF03098. An_peroxidase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00457. ANPEROXIDASE.
SMARTiSM00181. EGF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48113. SSF48113. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50026. EGF_3. 1 hit.
PS50292. PEROXIDASE_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

O19183-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MLARALLLCV ALALGHAANP CCSNPCQNRG VCMSVGFDQY QCDCTRTGFY
60 70 80 90 100
GENCSTPEFL TRIKLFLKPT PNTVHYILTH FKGVWNIVNS FPFLRNAVMK
110 120 130 140 150
YVLVSRSHLI ESPPTYNAQY GYKSWESFSN LSYYTRALPP VADGCPTPMG
160 170 180 190 200
VKGKKELPDS KEIVEKFLLR RKFIPDPQGT NMMFAFFAQH FTHQFFKTDP
210 220 230 240 250
KRGPAFTKGL GHGVDLSHIY GETLDRQHKL RLFKDGKMKY QIINGEVYPP
260 270 280 290 300
TVKDTQVEMI YPPHIPEHLR FAVGQEVFGL VPGLMMYATI WLREHNRVCD
310 320 330 340 350
VLKQEHPEWD DERLFQTSRL ILIGETIKIV IEDYVQHLSG YHFKLKFDPE
360 370 380 390 400
LLFNQQFQYQ NRIAAEFNTL YHWHPLLPDT FQIDDQEYNF QQFLYNNSIL
410 420 430 440 450
LEHGLTQFVE SFSRQIAGRV AGGRNVPAAA QKIAKASIDQ SREMKYQSLN
460 470 480 490 500
EYRKRFRLTP YKSFEELTGE KEMAAELEAL YGDIDAMELY PALLVEKPRP
510 520 530 540 550
DAIFGETMVE LGAPFSLKGL LGNPICSPDY WKPSTFGGEV GFKIINTASI
560 570 580 590 600
QSLICNNVKG CPFTAFSVQD PQLSKAVTIN ASASHSGLDD VNPTVLLKER

STEL
Length:604
Mass (Da):68,847
Last modified:January 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i2B792F7FEB513068
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AF027335 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC48808.1.
AF027334 mRNA. Translation: AAC07911.1.
RefSeqiNP_001075244.1. NM_001081775.1.
UniGeneiEca.3397.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSECAT00000018514; ENSECAP00000015107; ENSECAG00000017181.
GeneIDi791253.
KEGGiecb:791253.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AF027335 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC48808.1 .
AF027334 mRNA. Translation: AAC07911.1 .
RefSeqi NP_001075244.1. NM_001081775.1.
UniGenei Eca.3397.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali O19183.
SMRi O19183. Positions 18-569.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein family/group databases

PeroxiBasei 4123. EcabPGHS02.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENSECAT00000018514 ; ENSECAP00000015107 ; ENSECAG00000017181 .
GeneIDi 791253.
KEGGi ecb:791253.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 5743.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG39991.
GeneTreei ENSGT00390000010743.
HOGENOMi HOG000013149.
HOVERGENi HBG000366.
InParanoidi O19183.
KOi K11987.
OMAi ICNNVKG.
OrthoDBi EOG7RFTHC.
TreeFami TF329675.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi UPA00662 .

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 1.10.640.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR029576. COX-2.
IPR000742. EG-like_dom.
IPR010255. Haem_peroxidase.
IPR019791. Haem_peroxidase_animal.
[Graphical view ]
PANTHERi PTHR11903:SF8. PTHR11903:SF8. 1 hit.
Pfami PF03098. An_peroxidase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PRINTSi PR00457. ANPEROXIDASE.
SMARTi SM00181. EGF. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF48113. SSF48113. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS50026. EGF_3. 1 hit.
PS50292. PEROXIDASE_3. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Molecular characterization of equine prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 and regulation of its messenger ribonucleic acid in preovulatory follicles."
    Boerboom D., Sirois J.
    Endocrinology 139:1662-1670(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPGH2_HORSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O19183
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 15, 1998
Last sequence update: January 1, 1998
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 117 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site.
Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation.
PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation. Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration.

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3