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O19183

- PGH2_HORSE

UniProt

O19183 - PGH2_HORSE

Protein

Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2

Gene

PTGS2

Organism
Equus caballus (Horse)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli
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    • History
      Entry version 116 (01 Oct 2014)
      Sequence version 1 (01 Jan 1998)
      Previous versions | rss
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    Functioni

    Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis By similarity.By similarity

    Catalytic activityi

    Arachidonate + AH2 + 2 O2 = prostaglandin H2 + A + H2O.

    Cofactori

    Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group per subunit.By similarity

    Pathwayi

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Binding sitei106 – 1061SubstrateBy similarity
    Active sitei193 – 1931Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Binding sitei341 – 3411SubstrateBy similarity
    Active sitei371 – 3711For cyclooxygenase activityBy similarity
    Binding sitei371 – 3711SubstrateBy similarity
    Metal bindingi374 – 3741Iron (heme axial ligand)PROSITE-ProRule annotation
    Sitei516 – 5161Aspirin-acetylated serineBy similarity

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. dioxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
    2. heme binding Source: UniProtKB
    3. metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
    4. peroxidase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
    5. prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity Source: UniProtKB

    GO - Biological processi

    1. anagen Source: Ensembl
    2. brown fat cell differentiation Source: Ensembl
    3. cellular response to hypoxia Source: Ensembl
    4. cyclooxygenase pathway Source: UniProtKB
    5. positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation Source: Ensembl
    6. positive regulation of fever generation Source: Ensembl
    7. prostaglandin biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
    8. regulation of blood pressure Source: UniProtKB
    9. regulation of cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
    10. response to oxidative stress Source: InterPro

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Dioxygenase, Oxidoreductase, Peroxidase

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Fatty acid biosynthesis, Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid biosynthesis, Lipid metabolism, Prostaglandin biosynthesis, Prostaglandin metabolism

    Keywords - Ligandi

    Heme, Iron, Metal-binding

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayiUPA00662.

    Protein family/group databases

    PeroxiBasei4123. EcabPGHS02.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (EC:1.14.99.1)
    Alternative name(s):
    Cyclooxygenase-2
    Short name:
    COX-2
    PHS II
    Prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
    Short name:
    PGH synthase 2
    Short name:
    PGHS-2
    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
    Gene namesi
    Name:PTGS2
    Synonyms:COX2
    OrganismiEquus caballus (Horse)
    Taxonomic identifieri9796 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaPerissodactylaEquidaeEquus
    ProteomesiUP000002281: Chromosome 5

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
    2. endoplasmic reticulum membrane Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
    3. neuron projection Source: Ensembl
    4. nucleus Source: UniProtKB

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane, Microsome

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 1717By similarityAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini18 – 604587Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2PRO_0000023874Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi21 ↔ 32By similarity
    Disulfide bondi22 ↔ 145By similarity
    Disulfide bondi26 ↔ 42By similarity
    Disulfide bondi44 ↔ 54By similarity
    Glycosylationi53 – 531N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi130 – 1301N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Glycosylationi396 – 3961N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
    Modified residuei526 – 5261S-nitrosocysteineBy similarity
    Disulfide bondi555 ↔ 561By similarity
    Glycosylationi580 – 5801N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

    Post-translational modificationi

    S-nitrosylation by NOS2 (iNOS) activates enzyme activity. S-nitrosylation may take place on different Cys residues in addition to Cys-526 By similarity.By similarity

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein, S-nitrosylation

    Interactioni

    Subunit structurei

    Homodimer.By similarity

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliO19183.
    SMRiO19183. Positions 18-569.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Domains and Repeats

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Domaini18 – 5538EGF-likePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd
    BLAST

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the prostaglandin G/H synthase family.Curated
    Contains 1 EGF-like domain.PROSITE-ProRule annotation

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG39991.
    GeneTreeiENSGT00390000010743.
    HOGENOMiHOG000013149.
    HOVERGENiHBG000366.
    InParanoidiO19183.
    KOiK11987.
    OMAiICNNVKG.
    OrthoDBiEOG7RFTHC.
    TreeFamiTF329675.

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di1.10.640.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR029576. COX-2.
    IPR000742. EG-like_dom.
    IPR010255. Haem_peroxidase.
    IPR019791. Haem_peroxidase_animal.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11903:SF8. PTHR11903:SF8. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF03098. An_peroxidase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PRINTSiPR00457. ANPEROXIDASE.
    SMARTiSM00181. EGF. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF48113. SSF48113. 1 hit.
    PROSITEiPS50026. EGF_3. 1 hit.
    PS50292. PEROXIDASE_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    O19183-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MLARALLLCV ALALGHAANP CCSNPCQNRG VCMSVGFDQY QCDCTRTGFY    50
    GENCSTPEFL TRIKLFLKPT PNTVHYILTH FKGVWNIVNS FPFLRNAVMK 100
    YVLVSRSHLI ESPPTYNAQY GYKSWESFSN LSYYTRALPP VADGCPTPMG 150
    VKGKKELPDS KEIVEKFLLR RKFIPDPQGT NMMFAFFAQH FTHQFFKTDP 200
    KRGPAFTKGL GHGVDLSHIY GETLDRQHKL RLFKDGKMKY QIINGEVYPP 250
    TVKDTQVEMI YPPHIPEHLR FAVGQEVFGL VPGLMMYATI WLREHNRVCD 300
    VLKQEHPEWD DERLFQTSRL ILIGETIKIV IEDYVQHLSG YHFKLKFDPE 350
    LLFNQQFQYQ NRIAAEFNTL YHWHPLLPDT FQIDDQEYNF QQFLYNNSIL 400
    LEHGLTQFVE SFSRQIAGRV AGGRNVPAAA QKIAKASIDQ SREMKYQSLN 450
    EYRKRFRLTP YKSFEELTGE KEMAAELEAL YGDIDAMELY PALLVEKPRP 500
    DAIFGETMVE LGAPFSLKGL LGNPICSPDY WKPSTFGGEV GFKIINTASI 550
    QSLICNNVKG CPFTAFSVQD PQLSKAVTIN ASASHSGLDD VNPTVLLKER 600
    STEL 604
    Length:604
    Mass (Da):68,847
    Last modified:January 1, 1998 - v1
    Checksum:i2B792F7FEB513068
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AF027335 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC48808.1.
    AF027334 mRNA. Translation: AAC07911.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001075244.1. NM_001081775.1.
    UniGeneiEca.3397.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENSECAT00000018514; ENSECAP00000015107; ENSECAG00000017181.
    GeneIDi791253.
    KEGGiecb:791253.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AF027335 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC48808.1 .
    AF027334 mRNA. Translation: AAC07911.1 .
    RefSeqi NP_001075244.1. NM_001081775.1.
    UniGenei Eca.3397.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali O19183.
    SMRi O19183. Positions 18-569.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein family/group databases

    PeroxiBasei 4123. EcabPGHS02.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENSECAT00000018514 ; ENSECAP00000015107 ; ENSECAG00000017181 .
    GeneIDi 791253.
    KEGGi ecb:791253.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 5743.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG39991.
    GeneTreei ENSGT00390000010743.
    HOGENOMi HOG000013149.
    HOVERGENi HBG000366.
    InParanoidi O19183.
    KOi K11987.
    OMAi ICNNVKG.
    OrthoDBi EOG7RFTHC.
    TreeFami TF329675.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    UniPathwayi UPA00662 .

    Family and domain databases

    Gene3Di 1.10.640.10. 1 hit.
    InterProi IPR029576. COX-2.
    IPR000742. EG-like_dom.
    IPR010255. Haem_peroxidase.
    IPR019791. Haem_peroxidase_animal.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR11903:SF8. PTHR11903:SF8. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF03098. An_peroxidase. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    PRINTSi PR00457. ANPEROXIDASE.
    SMARTi SM00181. EGF. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    SUPFAMi SSF48113. SSF48113. 1 hit.
    PROSITEi PS50026. EGF_3. 1 hit.
    PS50292. PEROXIDASE_3. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. "Molecular characterization of equine prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 and regulation of its messenger ribonucleic acid in preovulatory follicles."
      Boerboom D., Sirois J.
      Endocrinology 139:1662-1670(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA].

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiPGH2_HORSE
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O19183
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 15, 1998
    Last sequence update: January 1, 1998
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 116 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

    Miscellaneousi

    Miscellaneous

    The conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is a 2 step reaction: a cyclooxygenase (COX) reaction which converts arachidonate to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) and a peroxidase reaction in which PGG2 is reduced to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). The cyclooxygenase reaction occurs in a hydrophobic channel in the core of the enzyme. The peroxidase reaction occurs at a heme-containing active site located near the protein surface. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) binding site corresponds to the cyclooxygenase active site.
    Conversion of arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 is mediated by 2 different isozymes: the constitutive PTGS1 and the inducible PTGS2. PGHS1 is expressed constitutively and generally produces prostanoids acutely in response to hormonal stimuli to fine-tune physiological processes requiring instantaneous, continuous regulation (e.g. hemostasis). PGHS2 is inducible and typically produces prostanoids that mediate responses to physiological stresses such as infection and inflammation.
    PTGS1 and PTGS2 are the targets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin is able to produce an irreversible inactivation of the enzyme through a serine acetylation. Inhibition of the PGHSs with NSAIDs acutely reduces inflammation, pain, and fever, and long-term use of these drugs reduces fatal thrombotic events, as well as the development of colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease. PTGS2 is the principal isozyme responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. New generation PTGSs inhibitors strive to be selective for PTGS2, to avoid side effects such as gastrointestinal complications and ulceration.

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. PATHWAY comments
      Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
    2. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3