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Protein

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2

Gene

GNGT2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. GTPase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. signal transducer activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  2. metabolic process Source: GOC
  3. phototransduction Source: UniProtKB
  4. synaptic transmission Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transducer

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2
Alternative name(s):
G gamma-C
G-gamma-8
G-gamma-9
Guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2
Gene namesi
Name:GNGT2
Synonyms:GNG8, GNG9, GNGT8
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 17

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:4412. GNGT2.

Subcellular locationi

  1. Cell membrane Curated; Lipid-anchor Curated; Cytoplasmic side Curated

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. heterotrimeric G-protein complex Source: UniProtKB
  2. plasma membrane Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA28791.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGNGT2.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 6666Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2PRO_0000012645Add
BLAST
Propeptidei67 – 693Removed in mature formBy similarityPRO_0000012646

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei66 – 661Cysteine methyl esterSequence Analysis
Lipidationi66 – 661S-farnesyl cysteineBy similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Lipoprotein, Methylation, Prenylation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiO14610.
PaxDbiO14610.
PRIDEiO14610.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Retinal cones.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiO14610.
CleanExiHS_GNG8.
HS_GNGT2.
ExpressionAtlasiO14610. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriO14610.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109055. 5 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000300406.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO14610.
SMRiO14610. Positions 5-62.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G protein gamma family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG304504.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063397.
HOGENOMiHOG000231034.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiO14610.
KOiK04549.
PhylomeDBiO14610.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

O14610-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAQDLSEKDL LKMEVEQLKK EVKNTRIPIS KAGKEIKEYV EAQAGNDPFL
60
KGIPEDKNPF KEKGGCLIS
Length:69
Mass (Da):7,747
Last modified:January 1, 1998 - v1
Checksum:i7ABD417F097F719B
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti11 – 111L → F.
Corresponds to variant rs9895097 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049271

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF001160, AF001159 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB70039.1.
AF365870 mRNA. Translation: AAK53384.1.
AF493876 mRNA. Translation: AAM12590.1.
AK312839 mRNA. Translation: BAG35693.1.
CH471109 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW94688.1.
CH471109 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW94689.1.
BC008663 mRNA. Translation: AAH08663.1.
CCDSiCCDS11545.1.
RefSeqiNP_001185683.1. NM_001198754.1.
NP_001185684.1. NM_001198755.1.
NP_001185685.1. NM_001198756.1.
NP_113686.1. NM_031498.2.
XP_006721882.1. XM_006721819.2.
UniGeneiHs.181781.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000300406; ENSP00000300406; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000507680; ENSP00000421710; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000511277; ENSP00000426022; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000511673; ENSP00000422879; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000515635; ENSP00000423924; ENSG00000167083.
GeneIDi2793.
KEGGihsa:2793.
UCSCiuc002ioo.2. human.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGNGT2.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF001160, AF001159 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB70039.1.
AF365870 mRNA. Translation: AAK53384.1.
AF493876 mRNA. Translation: AAM12590.1.
AK312839 mRNA. Translation: BAG35693.1.
CH471109 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW94688.1.
CH471109 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW94689.1.
BC008663 mRNA. Translation: AAH08663.1.
CCDSiCCDS11545.1.
RefSeqiNP_001185683.1. NM_001198754.1.
NP_001185684.1. NM_001198755.1.
NP_001185685.1. NM_001198756.1.
NP_113686.1. NM_031498.2.
XP_006721882.1. XM_006721819.2.
UniGeneiHs.181781.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO14610.
SMRiO14610. Positions 5-62.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi109055. 5 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000300406.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGNGT2.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiO14610.
PaxDbiO14610.
PRIDEiO14610.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi2793.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000300406; ENSP00000300406; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000507680; ENSP00000421710; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000511277; ENSP00000426022; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000511673; ENSP00000422879; ENSG00000167083.
ENST00000515635; ENSP00000423924; ENSG00000167083.
GeneIDi2793.
KEGGihsa:2793.
UCSCiuc002ioo.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2793.
GeneCardsiGC17M047283.
HGNCiHGNC:4412. GNGT2.
MIMi139391. gene.
neXtProtiNX_O14610.
PharmGKBiPA28791.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG304504.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063397.
HOGENOMiHOG000231034.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiO14610.
KOiK04549.
PhylomeDBiO14610.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_263982. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikiiGNGT2.
GenomeRNAii2793.
NextBioi11005.
PROiO14610.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiO14610.
CleanExiHS_GNG8.
HS_GNGT2.
ExpressionAtlasiO14610. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriO14610.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Gene structure and chromosome localization of the G gamma c subunit of human cone G-protein (GNGT2)."
    Ong O.C., Hu K., Rong H., Lee R.H., Fung B.K.-K.
    Genomics 44:101-109(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Tissue: Retina.
  2. "Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms."
    Cook L.A., Schey K.L., Cleator J.H., Wilcox M.D., Dingus J., Hildebrandt J.D.
    Protein Sci. 10:2548-2555(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  3. "cDNA clones of human proteins involved in signal transduction sequenced by the Guthrie cDNA resource center (www.cdna.org)."
    Puhl H.L. III, Ikeda S.R., Aronstam R.S.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  4. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Thymus.
  5. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  6. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Eye.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGBGT2_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O14610
Secondary accession number(s): B2R746, D3DTW5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 15, 1998
Last sequence update: January 1, 1998
Last modified: April 29, 2015
This is version 134 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 17
    Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.