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Protein

Glucagon

Gene

GCG

Organism
Heloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis.
GLP-1 is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin release. Play important roles on gastric motility and the suppression of plasma glucagon levels.
GLP-2 stimulates intestinal growth and up-regulates villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis.

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Glucagon
Cleaved into the following 6 chains:
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Short name:
GLP-1
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-37)
Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)
Short name:
GLP-1(7-36)
Glucagon-like peptide 2
Short name:
GLP-2
Gene namesi
Name:GCG
OrganismiHeloderma suspectum (Gila monster)
Taxonomic identifieri8554 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiLepidosauriaSquamataBifurcataUnidentataEpisquamataToxicoferaAnguimorphaNeoanguimorphaHelodermatidaeHeloderma

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2020Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Peptidei21 – 5030Glicentin-related polypeptideBy similarityPRO_0000011410Add
BLAST
Peptidei53 – 8129GlucagonBy similarityPRO_0000011411Add
BLAST
Propeptidei84 – 10926By similarityPRO_0000011412Add
BLAST
Peptidei110 – 14637Glucagon-like peptide 1By similarityPRO_0000011413Add
BLAST
Peptidei116 – 14631Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37)By similarityPRO_0000011414Add
BLAST
Peptidei116 – 14530Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36)By similarityPRO_0000011415Add
BLAST
Propeptidei149 – 16113By similarityPRO_0000011416Add
BLAST
Peptidei164 – 19633Glucagon-like peptide 2By similarityPRO_0000011417Add
BLAST
Propeptidei197 – 2048By similarityPRO_0000011418

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei145 – 1451Arginine amideBy similarity

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei52 – 532Cleavage; by PCSK2By similarity
Sitei83 – 842Cleavage; by PCSK1 and PCSK2By similarity
Sitei115 – 1162Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
Sitei148 – 1492Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity
Sitei163 – 1642Cleavage; by PCSK1By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Isoform LPII is expressed in both pancreas and intestine. Expression of isoform LPI is restricted to the pancreas. Neither isoform is detected in salivary glands.1 Publication

Inductioni

Produced in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans in response to a drop in blood sugar concentration.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO12956.
SMRiO12956. Positions 53-81, 116-145, 164-191.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glucagon family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG003010.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform LPII (identifier: O12956-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MTSMYFVAGL LLMIVQGSWQ SPLQETEEKS RSFKASQAEP LDDSRQLNEV
60 70 80 90 100
KRHSQGTFTS DYSKYLDTRR AQDFVQWLMN TKRSGQQGVE EREKENLLDQ
110 120 130 140 150
LSSNGLARHH AEYERHADGR YTSDISSYLE GQAAKEFIAW LVNGRGRRDF
160 170 180 190 200
LEEAGTADDI GRRHADGTFT SDYNQLLDDI ATQEFLKWLI NQKVTQRDLL

GEYQ
Length:204
Mass (Da):23,553
Last modified:July 1, 1997 - v1
Checksum:iB132E3FE46873E72
GO
Isoform LPI (identifier: O12956-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     149-149: D → E
     150-204: Missing.

Show »
Length:149
Mass (Da):17,224
Checksum:i1C1062A31884BB0B
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti120 – 1201R → T no nucleotide entry (PubMed:9545315).Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei149 – 1491D → E in isoform LPI. 1 PublicationVSP_001756
Alternative sequencei150 – 20455Missing in isoform LPI. 1 PublicationVSP_001757Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U77612 mRNA. Translation: AAB51129.1.
U77611 mRNA. Translation: AAB51128.1.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
U77612 mRNA. Translation: AAB51129.1.
U77611 mRNA. Translation: AAB51128.1.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO12956.
SMRiO12956. Positions 53-81, 116-145, 164-191.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

HOVERGENiHBG003010.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR015550. Glucagon.
IPR000532. Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11418:SF0. PTHR11418:SF0. 2 hits.
PfamiPF00123. Hormone_2. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00275. GLUCAGON.
SMARTiSM00070. GLUCA. 3 hits.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00260. GLUCAGON. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGLUC_HELSU
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O12956
Secondary accession number(s): O12955
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 15, 2002
Last sequence update: July 1, 1997
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 74 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.