Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.

Protein Tat



Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Protein inferred from homologyi


Nuclear transcriptional activator of viral gene expression, that is essential for viral transcription from the LTR promoter and replication. Acts as a sequence-specific molecular adapter, directing components of the cellular transcription machinery to the viral RNA to promote processive transcription elongation by the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) complex, thereby increasing the level of full-length transcripts. In the absence of Tat, the RNA Pol II generates short or non-processive transcripts that terminate at approximately 60 bp from the initiation site. Tat associates with the CCNT1/cyclin-T1 component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9 and CCNT1), which promotes RNA chain elongation. This binding increases Tat's affinity for a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of all nascent viral mRNAs referred to as the transactivation responsive RNA element (TAR RNA) and allows Tat/P-TEFb complex to bind cooperatively to TAR RNA. The CDK9 component of P-TEFb and other Tat-activated kinases hyperphosphorylate the C-terminus of RNA Pol II that becomes stabilized and much more processive. Other factors such as HTATSF1/Tat-SF1, SUPT5H/SPT5, and HTATIP2 are also important for Tat's function. Besides its effect on RNA Pol II processivity, Tat induces chromatin remodeling of proviral genes by recruiting the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREBBP, EP300 and PCAF to the chromatin. This also contributes to the increase in proviral transcription rate, especially when the provirus integrates in transcriptionally silent region of the host genome. To ensure maximal activation of the LTR, Tat mediates nuclear translocation of NF-kappa-B by interacting with host RELA. Through its interaction with host TBP, Tat may also modulate transcription initiation. Tat can reactivate a latently infected cell by penetrating in it and transactivating its LTR promoter. In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs.By similarity
Extracellular circulating Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via the binding to several surface receptors such as CD26, CXCR4, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) or LDLR. Neurons are rarely infected, but they internalize Tat via their LDLR. Through its interaction with nuclear HATs, Tat is potentially able to control the acetylation-dependent cellular gene expression. Modulates the expression of many cellular genes involved in cell survival, proliferation or in coding for cytokines or cytokine receptors. Tat plays a role in T-cell and neurons apoptosis. Tat induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis probably contribute to neuroAIDS. Circulating Tat also acts as a chemokine-like and/or growth factor-like molecule that binds to specific receptors on the surface of the cells, affecting many cellular pathways. In the vascular system, Tat binds to ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1 integrins dimers at the surface of endothelial cells and competes with bFGF for heparin-binding sites, leading to an excess of soluble bFGF.By similarity


Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei11 – 111Essential for Tat's translocation through the endosomal membraneBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni


Keywords - Biological processi

Apoptosis, Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of host innate immune response by virus, Inhibition of host interferon signaling pathway by virus, Modulation of host chromatin by virus, Modulation of host PP1 activity by virus, Transcription, Transcription regulation, Viral immunoevasion

Keywords - Ligandi

Metal-binding, RNA-binding, Zinc

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein Tat
Alternative name(s):
Transactivating regulatory protein
Gene namesi
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype C (isolate 92BR025) (HIV-1)
Taxonomic identifieri388812 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesRetro-transcribing virusesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirusPrimate lentivirus group
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]
  • UP000007686 Componenti: Chromosome

Subcellular locationi

  • Host nucleushost nucleolus By similarity
  • Host cytoplasm By similarity
  • Secreted By similarity

  • Note: Probably localizes to both nuclear and nucleolar compartments. Nuclear localization is mediated through the interaction of the nuclear localization signal with importin KPNB1. Secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway. Tat is released from infected cells to the extracellular space where it remains associated to the cell membrane, or is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and sera. Extracellular Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via binding to several receptors depending on the cell type.By similarity

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host cytoplasm, Host nucleus, Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Keywords - Diseasei


PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 101101Protein TatPRO_0000244845Add

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei28 – 281N6-acetyllysine; by host PCAFBy similarity
Modified residuei50 – 501N6-acetyllysine; by host EP300 and GCN5L2By similarity
Modified residuei51 – 511N6-acetyllysine; by host EP300 and GCN5L2By similarity
Modified residuei52 – 521Asymmetric dimethylarginine; by host PRMT6By similarity
Modified residuei53 – 531Asymmetric dimethylarginine; by host PRMT6By similarity
Cross-linki71 – 71Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Acetylation by EP300, CREBBP, GCN5L2/GCN5 and PCAF regulates the transactivation activity of Tat. EP300-mediated acetylation of Lys-50 promotes dissociation of Tat from the TAR RNA through the competitive binding to PCAF's bromodomain. In addition, the non-acetylated Tat's N-terminus can also interact with PCAF. PCAF-mediated acetylation of Lys-28 enhances Tat's binding to CCNT1. Lys-50 is deacetylated by SIRT1.By similarity
Phosphorylated by EIF2AK2 on serine and threonine residues adjacent to the basic region important for TAR RNA binding and function. Phosphorylation of Tat by EIF2AK2 is dependent on the prior activation of EIF2AK2 by dsRNA.By similarity
Asymmetrical arginine methylation by host PRMT6 seems to diminish the transactivation capacity of Tat and affects the interaction with host CCNT1.By similarity
Polyubiquitination by host MDM2 does not target Tat to degradation, but activates its transactivation function and fosters interaction with CCNT1 and TAR RNA.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Isopeptide bond, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation


Subunit structurei

Interacts with host CCNT1. Associates with the P-TEFb complex composed at least of Tat, P-TEFb (CDK9 and CCNT1), TAR RNA, RNA Pol II. Recruits the HATs CREBBP, TAF1/TFIID, EP300, PCAF and GCN5L2. Interacts with host KAT5/Tip60; this interaction targets the latter to degradation. Interacts with the host deacetylase SIRT1. Interacts with host capping enzyme RNGTT; this interaction stimulates RNGTT. Binds to host KDR, and to the host integrins ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1. Interacts with host KPNB1/importin beta-1 without previous binding to KPNA1/importin alpha-1. Interacts with EIF2AK2. Interacts with host nucleosome assembly protein NAP1L1; this interaction may be required for the transport of Tat within the nucleus, since the two proteins interact at the nuclear rim. Interacts with host C1QBP/SF2P32; this interaction involves lysine-acetylated Tat. Interacts with the host chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR3 and CXCR4. Interacts with host DPP4/CD26; this interaction may trigger an anti-proliferative effect. Interacts with host LDLR. Interacts with the host extracellular matrix metalloproteinase MMP1. Interacts with host PRMT6; this interaction mediates Tat's methylation. Interacts with, and is ubiquitinated by MDM2/Hdm2. Interacts with host PSMC3 and HTATIP2. Interacts with STAB1; this interaction may overcome SATB1-mediated repression of IL2 and IL2RA (interleukin) in T cells by binding to the same domain than HDAC1. Interacts (when acetylated on Lys-50 and Lys-51) with human CDK13, thereby increasing HIV-1 mRNA splicing and promoting the production of the doubly spliced HIV-1 protein Nef.Interacts with host TBP; this interaction modulates the activity of transcriptional pre-initiation complex. Interacts with host RELA.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases



3D structure databases

SMRiO12161. Positions 1-86.

Family & Domainsi


Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni1 – 4848TransactivationBy similarityAdd
Regioni1 – 2424Interaction with human CREBBPBy similarityAdd
Regioni22 – 3716Cysteine-richBy similarityAdd
Regioni38 – 4811CoreBy similarityAdd
Regioni49 – 8638Interaction with the host capping enzyme RNGTTBy similarityAdd


Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi49 – 579Nuclear localization signal, RNA-binding (TAR), and protein transductionBy similarity
Motifi78 – 803Cell attachment siteSequence analysis


The transactivation domain mediates the interaction with CCNT1, GCN5L2, and MDM2.By similarity
The Arg-rich RNA-binding region binds the TAR RNA. This region also mediates the nuclear localization through direct binding to KPNB1 and is involved in Tat's transfer across cell membranes (protein transduction). The same region is required for the interaction with EP300, PCAF, EIF2AK2 and KDR.By similarity
The Cys-rich region may bind 2 zinc ions. This region is involved in binding to KAT5.By similarity
The cell attachment site mediates the interaction with ITGAV/ITGB3 and ITGA5/ITGB1 integrins, leading to vascular cell migration and invasion. This interaction also provides endothelial cells with the adhesion signal they require to grow in response to mitogens.By similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the lentiviruses Tat family.Curated

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001831. IV_Tat.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Long (identifier: O12161-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
60 70 80 90 100

Mass (Da):11,488
Last modified:July 1, 1997 - v1
Isoform Short (identifier: O12161-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     73-101: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available. Expressed in the late stage of the infection cycle, when unspliced viral RNAs are exported to the cytoplasm by the viral Rev protein.
Show »
Mass (Da):8,270

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei73 – 10129Missing in isoform Short. CuratedVSP_022400Add

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
U52953 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB61129.1.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing


Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
U52953 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB61129.1.

3D structure databases

SMRiO12161. Positions 1-86.

Protein-protein interaction databases


Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001831. IV_Tat.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00539. Tat. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]


  1. "Molecular cloning and analysis of functional envelope genes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence subtypes A through G. The WHO and NIAID Networks for HIV Isolation and Characterization."
    Gao F., Morrison S.G., Robertson D.L., Thornton C.L., Craig S., Karlsson G., Sodroski J., Morgado M., Galvao-Castro B., von Briesen H., Beddows S., Weber J., Sharp P.M., Shaw G.M., Hahn B.H.
    J. Virol. 70:1651-1667(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  2. "Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications."
    Hetzer C., Dormeyer W., Schnolzer M., Ott M.
    Microbes Infect. 7:1364-1369(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  3. "The multiple functions of HIV-1 Tat: proliferation versus apoptosis."
    Peruzzi F.
    Front. Biosci. 11:708-717(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  4. Cited for: REVIEW.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTAT_HV192
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O12161
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2006
Last sequence update: July 1, 1997
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 82 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programViral Protein Annotation Program



HIV-1 lineages are divided in three main groups, M (for Major), O (for Outlier), and N (for New, or Non-M, Non-O). The vast majority of strains found worldwide belong to the group M. Group O seems to be endemic to and largely confined to Cameroon and neighboring countries in West Central Africa, where these viruses represent a small minority of HIV-1 strains. The group N is represented by a limited number of isolates from Caeroonian persons. The group M is further subdivided in 9 clades or subtypes (A to D, F to H, J and K).

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome


  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.