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Protein

Probable histone H2AXa

Gene

At1g08880

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C-terminal phosphorylation (By similarity).By similarity

Caution

To ensure consistency between histone entries, we follow the 'Brno' nomenclature for histone modifications, with positions referring to those used in the literature for the 'closest' model organism. Due to slight variations in histone sequences between organisms and to the presence of initiator methionine in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences, the actual positions of modified amino acids in the sequence generally differ. In this entry the following conventions are used: H2AXS139ph = phosphorylated Ser-139.Curated

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDNA-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-ATH-212300 PRC2 methylates histones and DNA
R-ATH-2299718 Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes
R-ATH-2559580 Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-ATH-2559582 Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
R-ATH-5578749 Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs
R-ATH-8936459 RUNX1 regulates genes involved in megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet function
R-ATH-9018519 Estrogen-dependent gene expression

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Probable histone H2AXa
Alternative name(s):
HTA5
Gene namesi
Ordered Locus Names:At1g08880
ORF Names:F7G19.24
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT1G08880
TAIRilocus:2036054 AT1G08880

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00000551971 – 142Probable histone H2AXaAdd BLAST142

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei139Phosphoserine; by ATM and ATRCurated1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated to form H2AXS139ph (gamma-H2AX) in response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generated by exogenous genotoxic agents and by stalled replication forks, and may also occur during meiotic recombination events. Phosphorylation can extend up to several thousand nucleosomes from the actual site of the DSB and may mark the surrounding chromatin for recruitment of proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair. Widespread phosphorylation may also serve to amplify the damage signal or aid repair of persistent lesions. H2AXS139ph in response to ionizing radiation is mediated by ATM while defects in DNA replication induce H2AXS139ph subsequent to activation of ATR. Dephosphorylation of H2AXS139ph by PP2A is required for DNA DSB repair (By similarity).By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiO04848
PRIDEiO04848

PTM databases

iPTMnetiO04848

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed mainly in roots.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiO04848 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiO04848 AT

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA. Interacts with numerous proteins required for DNA damage signaling and repair when phosphorylated on Ser-139 (By similarity).By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiO04848, 5 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT1G08880.1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliO04848
SMRiO04848
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Motifi139 – 140[ST]-Q motif2

Domaini

The [ST]-Q motif constitutes a recognition sequence for kinases from the PI3/PI4-kinase family.

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H2A family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756 Eukaryota
COG5262 LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000234652
InParanoidiO04848
KOiK11251
OMAiCSSLIFC
OrthoDBiEOG09360WU4
PhylomeDBiO04848

Family and domain databases

CDDicd00074 H2A, 1 hit
Gene3Di1.10.20.10, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR009072 Histone-fold
IPR002119 Histone_H2A
IPR007125 Histone_H2A/H2B/H3
IPR032454 Histone_H2A_C
IPR032458 Histone_H2A_CS
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00125 Histone, 1 hit
PF16211 Histone_H2A_C, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00620 HISTONEH2A
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00414 H2A, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF47113 SSF47113, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00046 HISTONE_H2A, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

O04848-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSTGAGSGTT KGGRGKPKAT KSVSRSSKAG LQFPVGRIAR FLKSGKYAER
60 70 80 90 100
VGAGAPVYLS AVLEYLAAEV LELAGNAARD NKKTRIVPRH IQLAVRNDEE
110 120 130 140
LSKLLGSVTI ANGGVLPNIH QTLLPSKVGK NKGDIGSASQ EF
Length:142
Mass (Da):14,813
Last modified:July 1, 1997 - v1
Checksum:i84ECDF2E5E46A3F9
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti39A → AL in AAM65474 (Ref. 4) Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC000106 Genomic DNA Translation: AAB70416.1
CP002684 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE28361.1
AY093975 mRNA Translation: AAM16236.1
AF412092 mRNA Translation: AAL06545.1
AY087924 mRNA Translation: AAM65474.1
PIRiE86220
RefSeqiNP_172363.1, NM_100760.5
UniGeneiAt.24300

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G08880.1; AT1G08880.1; AT1G08880
GeneIDi837409
GrameneiAT1G08880.1; AT1G08880.1; AT1G08880
KEGGiath:AT1G08880

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiH2AXA_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: O04848
Secondary accession number(s): Q8LAC0
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 7, 2006
Last sequence update: July 1, 1997
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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