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Protein

Protein HAPLESS 2

Gene

HAP2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Required for male fertility (PubMed:17079265, PubMed:20333238). Plays a role in pollen tube guidance and successful gamete attachment (PubMed:17079265). Essential for the fusion of gametes during double fertilization, where one male gamete fuses with the egg to produce a zygote, and another male gamete fuses with the central cell to produce the endosperm (PubMed:17079265, PubMed:20333238, PubMed:21209845). Mediates the fusion of cell membranes (PubMed:28137780). Not required for pollen tube outgrowth (PubMed:17079265, PubMed:20333238).6 Publications

Miscellaneous

HAP2/GCS1 family members mediate membrane fusion between gametes in a broad range of eukaryotes, ranging from algae and higher plants to protozoans and cnidaria, suggesting they are derived from an ancestral gamete fusogen. They function similar to viral fusogens, by inserting part of their extracellular domain into the lipid bilayer of an adjoining cell.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • double fertilization forming a zygote and endosperm Source: UniProtKB
  • fusion of sperm to egg plasma membrane involved in double fertilization forming a zygote and endosperm Source: UniProtKB
  • plasma membrane fusion Source: UniProtKB
  • pollen sperm cell differentiation Source: TAIR
  • single fertilization Source: UniProtKB-KW

Keywordsi

Biological processFertilization
LigandLipid-binding

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi1.N.3.1.1 the hapless2 male gamete fusion factor (fusexin) family

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein HAPLESS 2
Alternative name(s):
GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 11 Publication
Gene namesi
Name:HAP2
Synonyms:GCS11 Publication
Ordered Locus Names:At4g11720
ORF Names:T5C23
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT4G11720
TAIRilocus:2139772 AT4G11720

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Topological domaini25 – 561ExtracellularSequence analysisAdd BLAST537
Transmembranei562 – 582HelicalSequence analysisAdd BLAST21
Topological domaini583 – 705CytoplasmicSequence analysisAdd BLAST123

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Defective in pollen tube guidance. Prevents gamete interaction and fertilization, resulting in male sterility.2 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 24Sequence analysisAdd BLAST24
ChainiPRO_000041678025 – 705Protein HAPLESS 2Add BLAST681

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Disulfide bondi36 ↔ 47By similarity
Disulfide bondi125 ↔ 155By similarity
Disulfide bondi137 ↔ 185By similarity
Disulfide bondi156 ↔ 312By similarity
Disulfide bondi158 ↔ 168By similarity
Disulfide bondi295 ↔ 319By similarity
Disulfide bondi432 ↔ 470By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiF4JP36

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed only in mature pollen, in the two sperm cells.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expressed during pollen development and tube growth.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiF4JP36 differential
GenevisibleiF4JP36 AT

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT4G11720.1

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliF4JP36
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi598 – 671His-richPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST74

Domaini

The N-terminal domain (62-541)and the C-terminal domain (583-705) are both required for functional gamete fusion. A positive charge, and not a conserved primary amino acid sequence, is required for a functional C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain may be involved in interactions with another membrane-bound protein on female gametes, while positively charged C-terminus may function through electrostatic interactions with the sperm plasma membrane.2 Publications

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HAP2/GCS1 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IX3U Eukaryota
ENOG4111J3I LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000084108
InParanoidiF4JP36
OMAiLERDHND
OrthoDBiEOG0936060D

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR018928 Generative_cell_HAP2/GCS1
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF10699 HAP2-GCS1, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

F4JP36-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVNAILMACI LAGIFVGMFN EVDGIQILSK SKLEKCEKTS DSGNLNCSTK
60 70 80 90 100
IVLNLAVPSG SSGGEASIVA EIVEVEDNSS SNMQTVRIPP VITVNKSAAY
110 120 130 140 150
ALYDLTYIRD VPYKPQEYHV TTRKCEHDAG PDIVQICERL RDEKGNVLEQ
160 170 180 190 200
TQPICCPCGP QRRMPSSCGD IFDKMIKGKA NTAHCLRFPG DWFHVFGIGQ
210 220 230 240 250
RSLGFSVRVE LKTGTRVSEV IIGPENRTAT ANDNFLKVNL IGDFGGYTSI
260 270 280 290 300
PSFEDFYLVI PREAAEAGQP GSLGANYSMW MLLERVRFTL DGLECNKIGV
310 320 330 340 350
GYEAFNTQPN FCSSPYWSCL HNQLWNFRES DINRIDRHQL PLYGLEGRFE
360 370 380 390 400
RINQHPNAGP HSFSIGVTET LNTNLMIELR ADDIEYVFQR SPGKIINIAI
410 420 430 440 450
PTFEALTQFG VAAVIIKNTG EVEASYSLTF DCSKGVAFVE EQFFIIKPKA
460 470 480 490 500
VTTRSFKLYP TKDQAAKYIC TAILKDSQFS EVDRAECQFS TTATVLDNGT
510 520 530 540 550
QVTNPFQIPE TQPKGFFDSI RILWTKIING LVDFITGDTC RNKCSSFFDF
560 570 580 590 600
SCHIQYVCLS WMVMFGLLLA LFPITCLLLW LLHQKGLFDP CYDWWEDHFD
610 620 630 640 650
LDHHRRLLPS RADVVNRHHH HHKHRHHHNH HRRTHQRHKH HHGQDDDVLQ
660 670 680 690 700
KMMLERDHSD SHYYHQLHRV HKDSKQKQRR RAKHGIVLPR DVHVERQRKQ

RLRES
Length:705
Mass (Da):80,505
Last modified:June 28, 2011 - v1
Checksum:i0D4BEF577DDE6786
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence CAB39943 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated
The sequence CAB78215 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.Curated

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti127H → P in AAY51999 (PubMed:17079265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti127H → P in AAY51998 (PubMed:17079265).Curated1
Sequence conflicti127H → P in BAE71143 (PubMed:16378100).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
DQ022375 mRNA Translation: AAY51999.1
DQ022676 Genomic DNA Translation: AAY51998.1
AB206811 mRNA Translation: BAE71143.2
AL049500 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB39943.1 Sequence problems.
AL161532 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB78215.1 Sequence problems.
CP002687 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE83041.1
PIRiT04219
RefSeqiNP_192909.2, NM_117241.2
UniGeneiAt.54282

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G11720.1; AT4G11720.1; AT4G11720
GeneIDi826777
GrameneiAT4G11720.1; AT4G11720.1; AT4G11720
KEGGiath:AT4G11720

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiHAP2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: F4JP36
Secondary accession number(s): Q1AP31, Q2PGG6, Q9T0D9
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 18, 2012
Last sequence update: June 28, 2011
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 46 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

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