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Protein

Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, chloroplastic/glyoxysomal

Gene

ACS

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the production of acetyl-CoA, an activated form of acetate that can be used for lipid synthesis or for energy generation. May play a limited role in the biosynthesis of lipids.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Active sitei613 – 6131By similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • acetate-CoA ligase activity Source: TAIR
  • AMP binding Source: InterPro
  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • acetate metabolic process Source: TAIR
  • acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from acetate Source: InterPro
  • fatty acid metabolic process Source: UniProtKB-KW
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ligase

Keywords - Biological processi

Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G36880-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.2.1.1. 399.
ReactomeiR-ATH-71384. Ethanol oxidation.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, chloroplastic/glyoxysomal (EC:6.2.1.1)
Alternative name(s):
Acetate--CoA ligase
Acetyl-CoA synthetase
Gene namesi
Name:ACS
Ordered Locus Names:At5g36880
ORF Names:F5H8.15
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 5

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G36880.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • chloroplast Source: TAIR
  • chloroplast stroma Source: TAIR
  • cytosol Source: TAIR
  • glyoxysome Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chloroplast, Glyoxysome, Peroxisome, Plastid

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Transit peptidei1 – 8484ChloroplastSequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Chaini85 – 743659Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, chloroplastic/glyoxysomalPRO_0000415733Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiB9DGD6.
PRIDEiB9DGD6.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiB9DGD6.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in leaves, flower buds and young flowers.1 Publication

Developmental stagei

In the forming silique, expressed in the funiculus and ovule from 1 to 3 day after flowering (DAF). At 3 DAF, expressed in the globular embryo, but expression decreases at 5 DAF and almost disappears at 7 DAF in the embryo. By 1 d after imbibition, expressed in the tip of seed radicle and then in the root tip up to 4 d after imbibition.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiB9DGD6. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi18906. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT5G36880.2.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliB9DGD6.
SMRiB9DGD6. Positions 106-738.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Transit peptide

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1175. Eukaryota.
COG0365. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000229981.
InParanoidiB9DGD6.
KOiK01895.
OMAiAISKHEM.
PhylomeDBiB9DGD6.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011904. Ac_CoA_lig.
IPR032387. ACAS_N.
IPR025110. AMP-bd_C.
IPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF16177. ACAS_N. 1 hit.
PF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
PF13193. AMP-binding_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
TIGRFAMsiTIGR02188. Ac_CoA_lig_AcsA. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: B9DGD6-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKIGSPSSPI LSVVSSSGSL DPKISGSLGS RILPATQRSS PSENLLLHRK
60 70 80 90 100
MSSNSLRHVE SMSQLPSGAG KISQLNAVVL GESLASEEND LVFPSKEFSG
110 120 130 140 150
QALVSSPQQY MEMHKRSMDD PAAFWSDIAS EFYWKQKWGD QVFSENLDVR
160 170 180 190 200
KGPISIEWFK GGITNICYNC LDKNVEAGLG DKTAIHWEGN ELGVDASLTY
210 220 230 240 250
SELLQRVCQL ANYLKDNGVK KGDAVVIYLP MLMELPIAML ACARIGAVHS
260 270 280 290 300
VVFAGFSADS LAQRIVDCKP NVILTCNAVK RGPKTINLKA IVDAALDQSS
310 320 330 340 350
KDGVSVGICL TYDNSLATTR ENTKWQNGRD VWWQDVISQY PTSCEVEWVD
360 370 380 390 400
AEDPLFLLYT SGSTGKPKGV LHTTGGYMIY TATTFKYAFD YKSTDVYWCT
410 420 430 440 450
ADCGWITGHS YVTYGPMLNG ATVVVFEGAP NYPDPGRCWD IVDKYKVSIF
460 470 480 490 500
YTAPTLVRSL MRDDDKFVTR HSRKSLRVLG SVGEPINPSA WRWFFNVVGD
510 520 530 540 550
SRCPISDTWW QTETGGFMIT PLPGAWPQKP GSATFPFFGV QPVIVDEKGN
560 570 580 590 600
EIEGECSGYL CVKGSWPGAF RTLFGDHERY ETTYFKPFAG YYFSGDGCSR
610 620 630 640 650
DKDGYYWLTG RVDDVINVSG HRIGTAEVES ALVLHPQCAE AAVVGIEHEV
660 670 680 690 700
KGQGIYAFVT LLEGVPYSEE LRKSLVLMVR NQIGAFAAPD RIHWAPGLPK
710 720 730 740
TRSGKIMRRI LRKIASRQLE ELGDTSTLAD PSVVDQLIAL ADV
Length:743
Mass (Da):81,889
Last modified:March 24, 2009 - v1
Checksum:i774E5ACE90046A0E
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: B9DGD6-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-50: Missing.

Note: No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:693
Mass (Da):76,733
Checksum:i0DB31E225CD7FE42
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti426 – 4261F → L in AAB92552 (PubMed:10859180).Curated
Sequence conflicti439 – 4391W → R in AAB92552 (PubMed:10859180).Curated

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 5050Missing in isoform 2. 2 PublicationsVSP_042326Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF036618 mRNA. Translation: AAB92552.1.
AB025605 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA98066.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED94120.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED94121.1.
AY045880 mRNA. Translation: AAK76554.1.
BT002371 mRNA. Translation: AAN86204.1.
AK317115 mRNA. Translation: BAH19803.1.
RefSeqiNP_001031974.2. NM_001036897.2. [B9DGD6-1]
NP_198504.1. NM_123046.3. [B9DGD6-2]
UniGeneiAt.21024.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G36880.2; AT5G36880.2; AT5G36880. [B9DGD6-1]
GeneIDi833655.
KEGGiath:AT5G36880.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF036618 mRNA. Translation: AAB92552.1.
AB025605 Genomic DNA. Translation: BAA98066.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED94120.1.
CP002688 Genomic DNA. Translation: AED94121.1.
AY045880 mRNA. Translation: AAK76554.1.
BT002371 mRNA. Translation: AAN86204.1.
AK317115 mRNA. Translation: BAH19803.1.
RefSeqiNP_001031974.2. NM_001036897.2. [B9DGD6-1]
NP_198504.1. NM_123046.3. [B9DGD6-2]
UniGeneiAt.21024.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliB9DGD6.
SMRiB9DGD6. Positions 106-738.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi18906. 1 interaction.
STRINGi3702.AT5G36880.2.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiB9DGD6.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiB9DGD6.
PRIDEiB9DGD6.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT5G36880.2; AT5G36880.2; AT5G36880. [B9DGD6-1]
GeneIDi833655.
KEGGiath:AT5G36880.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT5G36880.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1175. Eukaryota.
COG0365. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000229981.
InParanoidiB9DGD6.
KOiK01895.
OMAiAISKHEM.
PhylomeDBiB9DGD6.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT5G36880-MONOMER.
BRENDAi6.2.1.1. 399.
ReactomeiR-ATH-71384. Ethanol oxidation.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiB9DGD6.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiB9DGD6. AT.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR011904. Ac_CoA_lig.
IPR032387. ACAS_N.
IPR025110. AMP-bd_C.
IPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF16177. ACAS_N. 1 hit.
PF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
PF13193. AMP-binding_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
TIGRFAMsiTIGR02188. Ac_CoA_lig_AcsA. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The role of pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in fatty acid synthesis in developing Arabidopsis seeds."
    Ke J., Behal R.H., Back S.L., Nikolau B.J., Wurtele E.S., Oliver D.J.
    Plant Physiol. 123:497-508(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE.
  2. "Structural analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5. XI."
    Kaneko T., Katoh T., Asamizu E., Sato S., Nakamura Y., Kotani H., Tabata S.
    Submitted (DEC-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Analysis of multiple occurrences of alternative splicing events in Arabidopsis thaliana using novel sequenced full-length cDNAs."
    Iida K., Fukami-Kobayashi K., Toyoda A., Sakaki Y., Kobayashi M., Seki M., Shinozaki K.
    DNA Res. 16:155-164(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Role of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Behal R.H., Lin M., Back S., Oliver D.J.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 402:259-267(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Novel glyoxysomal protein kinase, GPK1, identified by proteomic analysis of glyoxysomes in etiolated cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Fukao Y., Hayashi M., Hara-Nishimura I., Nishimura M.
    Plant Cell Physiol. 44:1002-1012(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  8. "Arabidopsis contains a large superfamily of acyl-activating enzymes. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis reveals a new class of acyl-coenzyme a synthetases."
    Shockey J.M., Fulda M.S., Browse J.
    Plant Physiol. 132:1065-1076(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GENE FAMILY.
  9. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Root.
  10. "Phosphoproteomic analysis of nuclei-enriched fractions from Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Jones A.M.E., MacLean D., Studholme D.J., Serna-Sanz A., Andreasson E., Rathjen J.P., Peck S.C.
    J. Proteomics 72:439-451(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  11. "Large-scale Arabidopsis phosphoproteome profiling reveals novel chloroplast kinase substrates and phosphorylation networks."
    Reiland S., Messerli G., Baerenfaller K., Gerrits B., Endler A., Grossmann J., Gruissem W., Baginsky S.
    Plant Physiol. 150:889-903(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiACS_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: B9DGD6
Secondary accession number(s): O49063, Q9LTG4
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 22, 2012
Last sequence update: March 24, 2009
Last modified: January 20, 2016
This is version 57 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.