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A8MTJ3

- GNAT3_HUMAN

UniProt

A8MTJ3 - GNAT3_HUMAN

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Protein

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3

Gene

GNAT3

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) alpha subunit playing a prominent role in bitter and sweet taste transduction as well as in umami (monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, and inosine monophosphate) taste transduction. Transduction by this alpha subunit involves coupling of specific cell-surface receptors with a cGMP-phosphodiesterase; Activation of phosphodiesterase lowers intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP which may open a cyclic nucleotide-suppressible cation channel leading to influx of calcium, ultimately leading to release of neurotransmitter. Indeed, denatonium and strychnine induce transient reduction in cAMP and cGMP in taste tissue, whereas this decrease is inhibited by GNAT3 antibody. Gustducin heterotrimer transduces response to bitter and sweet compounds via regulation of phosphodiesterase for alpha subunit, as well as via activation of phospholipase C for beta and gamma subunits, with ultimate increase inositol trisphosphate and increase of intracellular Calcium. GNAT3 can functionally couple to taste receptors to transmit intracellular signal: receptor heterodimer TAS1R2/TAS1R3 senses sweetness and TAS1R1/TAS1R3 transduces umami taste, whereas the T2R family GPCRs act as bitter sensors. Functions also as lumenal sugar sensors in the gut to control the expression of the Na+-glucose transporter SGLT1 in response to dietaty sugar, as well as the secretion of Glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, GIP. Thus, may modulate the gut capacity to absorb sugars, with implications in malabsorption syndromes and diet-related disorders including diabetes and obesity.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Metal bindingi47 – 471MagnesiumBy similarity
Metal bindingi181 – 1811MagnesiumBy similarity
Binding sitei326 – 3261GTP; via amide nitrogenBy similarity

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi40 – 478GTPBy similarity
Nucleotide bindingi175 – 1817GTPBy similarity
Nucleotide bindingi200 – 2045GTPBy similarity
Nucleotide bindingi269 – 2724GTPBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding Source: RefGenome
  2. G-protein coupled photoreceptor activity Source: RefGenome
  3. G-protein coupled receptor binding Source: RefGenome
  4. GTPase activity Source: RefGenome
  5. GTP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  6. metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  1. adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: Reactome
  2. adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: RefGenome
  3. blood coagulation Source: Reactome
  4. detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste Source: RefGenome
  5. detection of visible light Source: GOC
  6. platelet activation Source: Reactome
  7. response to nicotine Source: Ensembl
  8. sensory perception of sweet taste Source: RefGenome
  9. sensory perception of umami taste Source: Ensembl
  10. synaptic transmission Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transducer

Keywords - Ligandi

GTP-binding, Magnesium, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15333. Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway.
REACT_15426. PLC beta mediated events.
REACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_24019. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3
Alternative name(s):
Gustducin alpha-3 chain
Gene namesi
Name:GNAT3
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 7

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:22800. GNAT3.

Subcellular locationi

Cytoplasm 1 Publication
Note: Dual ditribution pattern; plasmalemmal pattern with apical region localization and cytosolic pattern with localization throughout the cytoplasm.

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. acrosomal vesicle Source: Ensembl
  2. apical plasma membrane Source: Ensembl
  3. axoneme Source: Ensembl
  4. heterotrimeric G-protein complex Source: RefGenome
  5. photoreceptor inner segment Source: RefGenome
  6. photoreceptor outer segment Source: RefGenome
  7. plasma membrane Source: Reactome
  8. protein complex Source: MGI
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA134931156.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11RemovedBy similarity
Chaini2 – 354353Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3PRO_0000342671Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Lipidationi2 – 21N-myristoyl glycineBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Potential N-myristoylation may anchor alpha-subunit to the inner surface of plasma membrane.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Lipoprotein, Myristate

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiA8MTJ3.
PaxDbiA8MTJ3.
PRIDEiA8MTJ3.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiA8MTJ3.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in taste buds (sensory organs of clustered epithelial cells) of the circumvallate and foliate papillae of the tongue at protein level. Expressed in enteroendocrine L cells of the gut. Detected also in spermatozoa.4 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiA8MTJ3.
CleanExiHS_GNAT3.
GenevestigatoriA8MTJ3.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

G proteins are composed of 3 units; alpha, beta and gamma, respectively GNAT3, GNB1 and GNG13 for Gustducin heterotrimer for bitter taste transduction. The alpha chain contains the guanine nucleotide binding site. Gustducin heterotrimer may also be composed of GNAT3, GNB3 and GNG13.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi131390. 5 interactions.
IntActiA8MTJ3. 1 interaction.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000381339.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliA8MTJ3.
SMRiA8MTJ3. Positions 14-354.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(i/o/t/z) subfamily.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG322962.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000118851.
HOGENOMiHOG000038730.
HOVERGENiHBG063184.
InParanoidiA8MTJ3.
KOiK04631.
OMAiKVHLSVC.
OrthoDBiEOG72C50B.
PhylomeDBiA8MTJ3.
TreeFamiTF300673.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.400.10. 1 hit.
3.40.50.300. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR001408. Gprotein_alpha_I.
IPR001019. Gprotein_alpha_su.
IPR011025. GproteinA_insert.
IPR027417. P-loop_NTPase.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10218. PTHR10218. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00503. G-alpha. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00318. GPROTEINA.
PR00441. GPROTEINAI.
SMARTiSM00275. G_alpha. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47895. SSF47895. 1 hit.
SSF52540. SSF52540. 2 hits.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

A8MTJ3 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGSGISSESK ESAKRSKELE KKLQEDAERD ARTVKLLLLG AGESGKSTIV
60 70 80 90 100
KQMKIIHKNG YSEQECMEFK AVIYSNTLQS ILAIVKAMTT LGIDYVNPRS
110 120 130 140 150
AEDQRQLYAM ANTLEDGGMT PQLAEVIKRL WRDPGIQACF ERASEYQLND
160 170 180 190 200
SAAYYLNDLD RITASGYVPN EQDVLHSRVK TTGIIETQFS FKDLHFRMFD
210 220 230 240 250
VGGQRSERKK WIHCFEGVTC IIFCAALSAY DMVLVEDEEV NRMHESLHLF
260 270 280 290 300
NSICNHKYFS TTSIVLFLNK KDIFQEKVTK VHLSICFPEY TGPNTFEDAG
310 320 330 340 350
NYIKNQFLDL NLKKEDKEIY SHMTCATDTQ NVKFVFDAVT DIIIKENLKD

CGLF
Length:354
Mass (Da):40,357
Last modified:July 1, 2008 - v2
Checksum:i47366FB99E9322AD
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence EAL24192.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.
The sequence EAL24193.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AC004862 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH236949 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24192.1. Sequence problems.
CH236949 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24193.1. Sequence problems.
CH471091 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW77007.1.
BC147016 mRNA. Translation: AAI47017.1.
BC147017 mRNA. Translation: AAI47018.1.
CCDSiCCDS47625.1.
RefSeqiNP_001095856.1. NM_001102386.1.
UniGeneiHs.335049.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000398291; ENSP00000381339; ENSG00000214415.
GeneIDi346562.
KEGGihsa:346562.
UCSCiuc011kgu.2. human.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AC004862 Genomic DNA. No translation available.
CH236949 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24192.1 . Sequence problems.
CH236949 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAL24193.1 . Sequence problems.
CH471091 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW77007.1 .
BC147016 mRNA. Translation: AAI47017.1 .
BC147017 mRNA. Translation: AAI47018.1 .
CCDSi CCDS47625.1.
RefSeqi NP_001095856.1. NM_001102386.1.
UniGenei Hs.335049.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali A8MTJ3.
SMRi A8MTJ3. Positions 14-354.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 131390. 5 interactions.
IntActi A8MTJ3. 1 interaction.
STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000381339.

PTM databases

PhosphoSitei A8MTJ3.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBi A8MTJ3.
PaxDbi A8MTJ3.
PRIDEi A8MTJ3.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENST00000398291 ; ENSP00000381339 ; ENSG00000214415 .
GeneIDi 346562.
KEGGi hsa:346562.
UCSCi uc011kgu.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 346562.
GeneCardsi GC07M080087.
HGNCi HGNC:22800. GNAT3.
MIMi 139395. gene.
neXtProti NX_A8MTJ3.
PharmGKBi PA134931156.
GenAtlasi Search...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG322962.
GeneTreei ENSGT00760000118851.
HOGENOMi HOG000038730.
HOVERGENi HBG063184.
InParanoidi A8MTJ3.
KOi K04631.
OMAi KVHLSVC.
OrthoDBi EOG72C50B.
PhylomeDBi A8MTJ3.
TreeFami TF300673.

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactomei REACT_15333. Adenylate cyclase inhibitory pathway.
REACT_15426. PLC beta mediated events.
REACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_24019. Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1).

Miscellaneous databases

GeneWikii GNAT3.
GenomeRNAii 346562.
NextBioi 98979.
PROi A8MTJ3.
SOURCEi Search...

Gene expression databases

Bgeei A8MTJ3.
CleanExi HS_GNAT3.
Genevestigatori A8MTJ3.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 1.10.400.10. 1 hit.
3.40.50.300. 2 hits.
InterProi IPR001408. Gprotein_alpha_I.
IPR001019. Gprotein_alpha_su.
IPR011025. GproteinA_insert.
IPR027417. P-loop_NTPase.
[Graphical view ]
PANTHERi PTHR10218. PTHR10218. 1 hit.
Pfami PF00503. G-alpha. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PRINTSi PR00318. GPROTEINA.
PR00441. GPROTEINAI.
SMARTi SM00275. G_alpha. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF47895. SSF47895. 1 hit.
SSF52540. SSF52540. 2 hits.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7."
    Hillier L.W., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Graves T.A., Pepin K.H., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Maas J., Jaeger S., Walker R., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., O'Laughlin M.D., Schaller M.E., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L.
    , Nash W.E., Cordes M., Du H., Sun H., Edwards J., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Andrews S., Isak A., Vanbrunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Lamar B., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Bielicki L., Scott K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Harris A., Strong C.M., Hou S., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Leonard S., Rohlfing T., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Abbott A., Minx P., Maupin R., Strowmatt C., Latreille P., Miller N., Johnson D., Murray J., Woessner J.P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Schultz B.R., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Nelson J.O., Berkowicz N., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Bedell J.A., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Chissoe S.L., Marra M.A., Raymond C., Haugen E., Gillett W., Zhou Y., James R., Phelps K., Iadanoto S., Bubb K., Simms E., Levy R., Clendenning J., Kaul R., Kent W.J., Furey T.S., Baertsch R.A., Brent M.R., Keibler E., Flicek P., Bork P., Suyama M., Bailey J.A., Portnoy M.E., Torrents D., Chinwalla A.T., Gish W.R., Eddy S.R., McPherson J.D., Olson M.V., Eichler E.E., Green E.D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
    Nature 424:157-164(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  2. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  3. "Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology."
    Scherer S.W., Cheung J., MacDonald J.R., Osborne L.R., Nakabayashi K., Herbrick J.-A., Carson A.R., Parker-Katiraee L., Skaug J., Khaja R., Zhang J., Hudek A.K., Li M., Haddad M., Duggan G.E., Fernandez B.A., Kanematsu E., Gentles S.
    , Christopoulos C.C., Choufani S., Kwasnicka D., Zheng X.H., Lai Z., Nusskern D.R., Zhang Q., Gu Z., Lu F., Zeesman S., Nowaczyk M.J., Teshima I., Chitayat D., Shuman C., Weksberg R., Zackai E.H., Grebe T.A., Cox S.R., Kirkpatrick S.J., Rahman N., Friedman J.M., Heng H.H.Q., Pelicci P.G., Lo-Coco F., Belloni E., Shaffer L.G., Pober B., Morton C.C., Gusella J.F., Bruns G.A.P., Korf B.R., Quade B.J., Ligon A.H., Ferguson H., Higgins A.W., Leach N.T., Herrick S.R., Lemyre E., Farra C.G., Kim H.-G., Summers A.M., Gripp K.W., Roberts W., Szatmari P., Winsor E.J.T., Grzeschik K.-H., Teebi A., Minassian B.A., Kere J., Armengol L., Pujana M.A., Estivill X., Wilson M.D., Koop B.F., Tosi S., Moore G.E., Boright A.P., Zlotorynski E., Kerem B., Kroisel P.M., Petek E., Oscier D.G., Mould S.J., Doehner H., Doehner K., Rommens J.M., Vincent J.B., Venter J.C., Li P.W., Mural R.J., Adams M.D., Tsui L.-C.
    Science 300:767-772(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  4. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  5. "Human taste cells express the G protein alpha-gustducin and neuron-specific enolase."
    Takami S., Getchell T.V., McLaughlin S.K., Margolskee R.F., Getchell M.L.
    Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 22:193-203(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  6. Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Colocalization of the alpha-subunit of gustducin with PYY and GLP-1 in L cells of human colon."
    Rozengurt N., Wu S.V., Chen M.C., Huang C., Sternini C., Rozengurt E.
    Am. J. Physiol. 291:G792-G802(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  8. "Expression of the G-protein alpha-subunit gustducin in mammalian spermatozoa."
    Fehr J., Meyer D., Widmayer P., Borth H.C., Ackermann F., Wilhelm B., Gudermann T., Boekhoff I.
    J. Comp. Physiol. A 193:21-34(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  9. Cited for: FUNCTION.
  10. Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGNAT3_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: A8MTJ3
Secondary accession number(s): A4D1B2, A4D1B3, B9EJG5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 1, 2008
Last sequence update: July 1, 2008
Last modified: October 29, 2014
This is version 68 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 7
    Human chromosome 7: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3