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Protein

Histone H2A type 2-C

Gene

HIST2H2AC

Organism
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Ligandi

DNA-binding

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Histone H2A type 2-C
Gene namesi
Name:HIST2H2AC
OrganismiBos taurus (Bovine)
Taxonomic identifieri9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos
Proteomesi
  • UP000009136 Componenti: Unplaced

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Chromosome, Nucleosome core, Nucleus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Initiator methionineiRemovedBy similarity
ChainiPRO_00002819172 – 129Histone H2A type 2-CAdd BLAST128

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei2N-acetylserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei2Phosphoserine; by RPS6KA5By similarity1
Modified residuei4Citrulline; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei4Symmetric dimethylarginine; by PRMT5; alternateBy similarity1
Modified residuei6N6-acetyllysineBy similarity1
Cross-linki14Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity
Cross-linki16Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin)By similarity
Modified residuei37N6-crotonyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei105N5-methylglutamineBy similarity1
Modified residuei119N6-crotonyllysineBy similarity1
Modified residuei120N6-crotonyllysine; alternateBy similarity1
Cross-linki120Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin); alternateBy similarity
Modified residuei121Phosphothreonine; by VPRBPBy similarity1
Modified residuei123PhosphoserineBy similarity1
Modified residuei125N6-crotonyllysineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Deiminated on Arg-4 in granulocytes upon calcium entry.By similarity
Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AK119Ub) by RING1, TRIM27 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression and participates in X chromosome inactivation of female mammals. It is involved in the initiation of both imprinted and random X inactivation. Ubiquitinated H2A is enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin. Ubiquitination of H2A functions downstream of methylation of 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). H2AK119Ub by RNF2/RING2 can also be induced by ultraviolet and may be involved in DNA repair. Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through 'Lys-63' linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Ubiquitination at Lys-14 and Lys-16 (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub, respectively) in response to DNA damage is initiated by RNF168 that mediates monoubiquitination at these 2 sites, and 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin are then conjugated to monoubiquitin; RNF8 is able to extend 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro. H2AK119Ub and ionizing radiation-induced 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub) are distinct events.By similarity
Phosphorylation on Ser-2 (H2AS1ph) is enhanced during mitosis. Phosphorylation on Ser-2 by RPS6KA5/MSK1 directly represses transcription. Acetylation of H3 inhibits Ser-2 phosphorylation by RPS6KA5/MSK1. Phosphorylation at Thr-121 (H2AT120ph) by VPRBP is present in the regulatory region of many tumor suppresor genes and down-regulates their transcription.By similarity
Symmetric dimethylation on Arg-4 by the PRDM1/PRMT5 complex may play a crucial role in the germ-cell lineage.By similarity
Glutamine methylation at Gln-105 (H2AQ104me) by FBL is specifically dedicated to polymerase I. It is present at 35S ribosomal DNA locus and impairs binding of the FACT complex.By similarity
Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Citrullination, Isopeptide bond, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiA1A4R1.
PeptideAtlasiA1A4R1.
PRIDEiA1A4R1.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi170293. 2 interactors.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000048654.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliA1A4R1.
SMRiA1A4R1.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the histone H2A family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756. Eukaryota.
COG5262. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000234652.
HOVERGENiHBG009342.
InParanoidiA1A4R1.
KOiK11251.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009072. Histone-fold.
IPR002119. Histone_H2A.
IPR007125. Histone_H2A/H2B/H3.
IPR032454. Histone_H2A_C.
IPR032458. Histone_H2A_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00125. Histone. 1 hit.
PF16211. Histone_H2A_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00620. HISTONEH2A.
SMARTiSM00414. H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47113. SSF47113. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00046. HISTONE_H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

A1A4R1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSGRGKQGGK ARAKAKSRSS RAGLQFPVGR VHRLLRKGNY AERVGAGAPV
60 70 80 90 100
YMAAVLEYLT AEILELAGNA ARDNKKTRII PRHLQLAIRN DEELNKLLGK
110 120
VTIAQGGVLP NIQAVLLPKK TESHKAKSK
Length:129
Mass (Da):13,988
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v1
Checksum:i358AE20D1C531724
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC126824 mRNA. Translation: AAI26825.1.
RefSeqiNP_001075189.1. NM_001081720.2.
UniGeneiBt.12047.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi513666.
KEGGibta:513666.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
BC126824 mRNA. Translation: AAI26825.1.
RefSeqiNP_001075189.1. NM_001081720.2.
UniGeneiBt.12047.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliA1A4R1.
SMRiA1A4R1.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi170293. 2 interactors.
STRINGi9913.ENSBTAP00000048654.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiA1A4R1.
PeptideAtlasiA1A4R1.
PRIDEiA1A4R1.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi513666.
KEGGibta:513666.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8338.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1756. Eukaryota.
COG5262. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000234652.
HOVERGENiHBG009342.
InParanoidiA1A4R1.
KOiK11251.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR009072. Histone-fold.
IPR002119. Histone_H2A.
IPR007125. Histone_H2A/H2B/H3.
IPR032454. Histone_H2A_C.
IPR032458. Histone_H2A_CS.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00125. Histone. 1 hit.
PF16211. Histone_H2A_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00620. HISTONEH2A.
SMARTiSM00414. H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF47113. SSF47113. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00046. HISTONE_H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiH2A2C_BOVIN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: A1A4R1
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 3, 2007
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: November 2, 2016
This is version 70 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.