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A1A4R1 (H2A2C_BOVIN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 54. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (1) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Histone H2A type 2-C
Gene names
Name:HIST2H2AC
OrganismBos taurus (Bovine) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9913 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaLaurasiatheriaCetartiodactylaRuminantiaPecoraBovidaeBovinaeBos

Protein attributes

Sequence length129 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at transcript level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.

Subunit structure

The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA.

Subcellular location

Nucleus. Chromosome.

Post-translational modification

Monoubiquitination of Lys-120 (H2AK119Ub) by RING1 and RNF2/RING2 complex gives a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression and participates in X chromosome inactivation of female mammals. It is involved in the initiation of both imprinted and random X inactivation. Ubiquitinated H2A is enriched in inactive X chromosome chromatin. Ubiquitination of H2A functions downstream of methylation of 'Lys-27' of histone H3 (H3K27me). H2AK119Ub by RNF2/RING2 can also be induced by ultraviolet and may be involved in DNA repair. Following DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it is ubiquitinated through 'Lys-63' linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 ligase UBE2N and the E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168, leading to the recruitment of repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Ubiquitination at Lys-14 and Lys-16 (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub, respectively) in response to DNA damage is initiated by RNF168 that mediates monoubiquitination at these 2 sites, and 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin are then conjugated to monoubiquitin; RNF8 is able to extend 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin chains in vitro. H2AK119Ub and ionizing radiation-induced 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination (H2AK13Ub and H2AK15Ub) are distinct events By similarity.

Phosphorylation on Ser-2 (H2AS1ph) is enhanced during mitosis. Phosphorylation on Ser-2 by RPS6KA5/MSK1 directly represses transcription. Acetylation of H3 inhibits Ser-2 phosphorylation by RPS6KA5/MSK1. Phosphorylation at Thr-121 (H2AT120ph) by VPRBP is present in the regulatory region of many tumor suppresor genes and down-regulates their transcription By similarity.

Glutamine methylation at Gln-105 (H2AQ104me) by FBL is specifically dedicated to polymerase I. It is present at 35S ribosomal DNA locus and impairs binding of the FACT complex By similarity.

Symmetric dimethylation on Arg-4 by the PRDM1/PRMT5 complex may play a crucial role in the germ-cell lineage By similarity.

Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes By similarity.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the histone H2A family.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Cellular componentChromosome
Nucleosome core
Nucleus
   LigandDNA-binding
   PTMAcetylation
Citrullination
Isopeptide bond
Methylation
Phosphoprotein
Ubl conjugation
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processnucleosome assembly

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: InterPro

   Cellular_componentnucleosome

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

nucleus

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-SubCell

   Molecular_functionDNA binding

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Initiator methionine11Removed By similarity
Chain2 – 129128Histone H2A type 2-C
PRO_0000281917

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue21N-acetylserine By similarity
Modified residue21Phosphoserine; by RPS6KA5 By similarity
Modified residue41Citrulline; alternate By similarity
Modified residue41Symmetric dimethylarginine; by PRMT5; alternate By similarity
Modified residue61N6-acetyllysine By similarity
Modified residue101N6-acetyllysine By similarity
Modified residue371N6-crotonyllysine By similarity
Modified residue1051N5-methylglutamine By similarity
Modified residue1191N6-crotonyllysine By similarity
Modified residue1201N6-crotonyllysine; alternate By similarity
Modified residue1211Phosphothreonine; by VPRBP By similarity
Modified residue1231Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residue1251N6-crotonyllysine By similarity
Cross-link14Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin) By similarity
Cross-link16Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin) By similarity
Cross-link120Glycyl lysine isopeptide (Lys-Gly) (interchain with G-Cter in ubiquitin); alternate By similarity

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
A1A4R1 [UniParc].

Last modified January 23, 2007. Version 1.
Checksum: 358AE20D1C531724

FASTA12913,988
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MSGRGKQGGK ARAKAKSRSS RAGLQFPVGR VHRLLRKGNY AERVGAGAPV YMAAVLEYLT 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
AEILELAGNA ARDNKKTRII PRHLQLAIRN DEELNKLLGK VTIAQGGVLP NIQAVLLPKK 


TESHKAKSK 

« Hide

References

[1]NIH - Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project
Submitted (OCT-2006) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Strain: Hereford.
Tissue: Fetal lung.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
BC126824 mRNA. Translation: AAI26825.1.
RefSeqNP_001075189.1. NM_001081720.2.
UniGeneBt.12047.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalA1A4R1.
SMRA1A4R1. Positions 14-119.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRING9913.ENSBTAP00000052035.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbA1A4R1.
PRIDEA1A4R1.

Protocols and materials databases

StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneID513666.
KEGGbta:513666.

Organism-specific databases

CTD8338.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGCOG5262.
HOGENOMHOG000234652.
HOVERGENHBG009342.
InParanoidA1A4R1.
KOK11251.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_214934. Cell Cycle.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D1.10.20.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR009072. Histone-fold.
IPR007125. Histone_core_D.
IPR002119. Histone_H2A.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00125. Histone. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSPR00620. HISTONEH2A.
SMARTSM00414. H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF47113. SSF47113. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS00046. HISTONE_H2A. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

NextBio20870973.

Entry information

Entry nameH2A2C_BOVIN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: A1A4R1
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: April 3, 2007
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 54 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families