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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype C (strain D11S-1) is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a subject with aggressive periodontitis. It typically resides in the oral cavity of humans and animals and can cause a number of diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans is a major etiologic agent of human periodontal disease, in particular aggressive periodontitis, which results in devastation to the bone supporting the teeth. Adherence to oral surfaces is controlled through the tad (tight adherence) locus, which may express proteins that are involved in type IV secretion. The bacterium actively suppresses immune responses through a number of secreted proteins, two of which are toxins; leukotoxin and cytolethal distending toxin. This organism causes bone destruction by interfering with the osteoblast/osteoclast (bone-forming cell/bone resorption cell) control mechanisms that normally ensure constant bone remodeling through a number of expressed proteins. A. actinomycetemcomitans can also invade nonphagocytic cells and spread intercellularly, causing apoptotic destruction of host epithelial layers. (Adapted from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=genomeprj&cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=40107 and PMID: 19820097).