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Overview

Proteome nameStaphylococcus aureus USA300
Proteins2,607
Proteome IDiUP000001939
StrainUSA300
Taxonomy367830 - Staphylococcus aureus (strain USA300)
Last modifiedFebruary 4, 2017
Genome assembly and annotationi GCA_000013465.1 from ENA/EMBL

Gram-positive nonmotile coccus that grows in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in which it forms grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community- acquired and hospital-acquired infections. It produces numerous toxins including superantigens that cause unique disease entities such as toxic-shock syndrome and staphylococcal scarlet fever.

S.aureus (strain USA300) is a meticillin-resistant clone that was isolated in September 2000. It harbors one circular chromosome and three plasmids. It has been involved in epidemiologically unassociated outbreaks of skin and soft tissue infections in healthy individuals in at least 21 US states, Canada and Europe. It is also associated with unusually invasive diseases, such as severe septicaemia and necrotising fasciitis. It is more virulent than S.aureus (strain COL) and highly invasive of major organs. It is also more resistant to killing by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and causes greater host cell lysis. USA300 and COL were found to be related by vertical descent from a common ancestor. Resistance to beta lactams and ciprofloxacin are chromosomally encoded. Resistance to tetracycline, macrolides (erythromycin), lincosamides (clindamycin), streptogramin B and mupirocin is encoded on plasmids pUSA02 and pUSA03. Plasmid pUSA03 was detected in 46% of multidrug resistant USA300 strains in the strain population studied. All unique genes in USA300 are clustered in five novel allotypes of mobile genetic elements that encode virulence or resistance determinants. The first two genetic elements are the SCCmec IV element and ACME. The third one is a novel staphylococcal pathogenicity island, SaPI5, that encodes two enterotoxins closely related to SEQ and SEK in COL. The fourth one is prophage phiSA2usa, which carries the genes coding for the Panton-Valentine leucocidin. The fifth one is prophage phiSa3usa, which encodes staphylokinase and a chemotaxis inhibiting protein. In addition, USA300 possesses two other genetic elements present in all S.aureus genomes. They carry several gene clusters that might also contribute to pathogenesis. ACME is a 30.9 kb island of foreign DNA that is absent in other S.aureus genomes. It contains a cluster of six genes encoding a complete arginine deiminase pathway. This arginine deiminase system has potentially a role in enhancing the capacity of USA300 to grow and survive in the host. All S.aureus strains carry a native arginine deiminase cluster that is different from the ACME-encoded cluster. This ACME-encoded cluster was identified in S.epidermidis (strain ATCC 12228) but not in S.epidermidis RP6A2. USA300 might be the first S.aureus strain to have acquired ACME from S.epidermidis or other coagulase negative staphylococci.

Componentsi

DownloadView all proteins
Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Proteins
Chromosome2564
Plasmid pUSA015
Plasmid pUSA023
Plasmid pUSA0335

Publications

  1. "Complete genome sequence of USA300, an epidemic clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus."
    Diep B.A., Gill S.R., Chang R.F., Phan T.H., Chen J.H., Davidson M.G., Lin F., Lin J., Carleton H.A., Mongodin E.F., Sensabaugh G.F., Perdreau-Remington F.
    Lancet 2006:731-739(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]