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Overview

Proteome nameLactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 11842 - Reference proteome
Proteins1,519
Proteome IDiUP000001259
StrainATCC 11842 / DSM 20081 / JCM 1002 / NBRC 13953 / NCIMB 11778
Taxonomy390333 - Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (strain ATCC 11842 / DSM 20081 / JCM 1002 / NBRC 13953 / NCIMB 11778)
Last modifiedFebruary 4, 2017
Genome assembly and annotationi GCA_000056065.1 from ENA/EMBL
Pan proteomei This proteome is part of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 11842 pan proteome (fasta)

Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the economically most important representatives of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, with a worldwide application in yogurt production. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (strain ATCC 11842 / DSM 20081) was originally isolated from bulgarian yogurt in 1919. L.bulgaricus belongs to the acidophilus complex and is considered unique within this group because of its atypical GC content. Its overall GC content differs significantly from related species such as L.acidophilus and L.johnsonii. This is mainly due to important differences at codon position 3. L.bulgaricus contains a relatively high number of pseudogenes, 270, suggesting that the genome is undergoing size reduction and gene elimination. A noncoding region of 2.5 kbp has been found that has all the features of a CRISPR region. The genome contains a high number of rRNA and tRNA genes, which seems to indicate that it has recently undergone a phase of size reduction. Intriguingly, the replication terminus region contains an inverted repeat of 47.5 kbp. Inverted repeats of this size are extremely rare in bacteria. A large number of transposases and of remnants of transposases are present in L.bulgaricus but in contrast to several lactic acid bacteria, no prophage has been found. There are complete pathways for the biosynthesis of folate and saturated fatty acids and all or most of the enzymes necessary for the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines are present. L.bulgaricus possesses relatively few genes for transcriptional regulators and the difference with Lactobacillus plantarum is striking (53 and 234 predicted genes, respectively) even when taking into account the larger genome size of L.plantarum. This could reflect adaptations to the stable and nutritionally riche milk environment. Complete transport systems for lactose, mannose/glucose, fructose and glycerol have been identified whereas transport systems for cellobiose, sucrose, maltose are incomplete. Together with remnants of key enzymes in carbohydrate-specific metabolic pathways, this indicates the prior existence of metabolic capacities that may have served in a plant-associated environment. Likewise, the complete absence of a large number of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids suggests an adaptation to the protein-rich milk environment. Consequently, the extracellular protease has become essential for growth in milk. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus stimulate each other's growth and product acidification during milk fermentation through a process called protocooperation. The L.bulgaricus extracellular proteinase can supply peptides and amino acids to S.thermophilus through degradation of milk proteins. Formate and CO2 produced by S.thermophilus stimulate the growth of L.bulgaricus. L.bulgaricus is not able to produce PABA whereas S.thermophilus does produce PABA; L.bulgaricus could then benefit from elevated levels of PABA when cocultured with S.thermophilus.

Componentsi

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Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Proteins
Chromosome1519