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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2017_12 of Dec-20, 2017 contains 556,388 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 5,854 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,304 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,937 2,284 207 211
Spiders Araneae 1,408 1,483 111 112
Snails Gastropoda 1,185 1,193 108 106
Scorpions Scorpiones 772 963 73 78
Sea anemones Actiniaria 236 0 44 0
Insects Hexapoda 76 261 38 80
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 7 7
Fishes Teleostei 29 15 10 5
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 49 52 3 4
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 3 16 2
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 26 4 12 2
All animals Metazoa 5,854 6,304 642 609

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 2 362 167 94 3 90 722
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 52 294 105 40 6 70 594
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 46 188 92 22 0 66 427
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 48 7 0 3 0 69
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 277 0 0 152 0 0 429
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 25 132 83 7 0 318
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 123 77 6 0 224
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 19 0 0 0 0 28
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 2 19 0 0 21
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 0 4 0 0 3 16
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
5-HT receptor sigma 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 8 0 0 8
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,284 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 68%
at transcript level 24.1%
inferred from homology 7.8%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,284 1,874 unique 100%
General annotation 2,284 11,101 100%
Function 2,194 2,338 96.1%
Catalytic activity 515 517 22.5%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 279 306 12.2%
Sequence annotation 2,279 25,317 99.8%
Amino acid modifications 2,075 11,613 90.8%
Cross-references 2,284 32,251 100%
EMBL 1,366 1,702 59.8%
InterPro 1,988 7,878 87%
PDB 248 562 10.9%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,193 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 38%
at transcript level 52.1%
inferred from homology 9.8%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,193 473 unique 100%
General annotation 1,193 5,224 100%
Function 581 591 48.7%
Catalytic activity 4 4 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 9 9 0.8%
Sequence annotation 1,178 7,779 98.7%
Amino acid modifications 1,079 3,976 90.4%
Cross-references 1,192 6,592 100%
EMBL 735 977 61.6%
InterPro 774 1,065 64.9%
PDB 79 172 6.6%
Conoserver 863 946 72.3%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 963 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 60.1%
at transcript level 26.9%
inferred from homology 13%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 963 672 unique 100%
General annotation 963 3,773 100%
Function 852 888 88.5%
Catalytic activity 16 16 1.7%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 91 98 9.4%
Sequence annotation 958 5,420 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 787 2,852 81.7%
Cross-references 962 8,142 100%
EMBL 513 661 53.3%
InterPro 723 1,935 75.1%
PDB 94 165 9.8%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,483 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 44.8%
at transcript level 49.8%
inferred from homology 5.4%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,483 420 unique 100%
General annotation 1,483 6,553 100%
Function 1,180 1,186 79.6%
Catalytic activity 217 217 14.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 111 127 7.5%
Sequence annotation 1,473 9,830 99.3%
Amino acid modifications 1,277 4,185 86.1%
Cross-references 1,481 9,929 100%
EMBL 1,040 1,360 70.1%
InterPro 1,158 1,580 78.1%
PDB 71 106 4.8%
ArachnoServer 1,140 1,149 76.9%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.