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Swiss-Prot release 38.0

Published July 1, 1999

                   SWISS-PROT RELEASE 38.0 RELEASE NOTES


Release 38.0  of SWISS-PROT  contains 80'000  sequence entries,  comprising
29'085'265 amino  acids abstracted  from 64'965 references. This represents
an increase  of 3%  over release  37.  The  growth  of  the  data  bank  is
summarized below.

 Release      Date           Number of       Number of amino
                               entries                 acids
    2.0       09/86               3939               900 163
    3.0       11/86               4160               969 641
    4.0       04/87               4387             1 036 010
    5.0       09/87               5205             1 327 683
    6.0       01/88               6102             1 653 982
    7.0       04/88               6821             1 885 771
    8.0       08/88               7724             2 224 465
    9.0       11/88               8702             2 498 140
   10.0       03/89              10008             2 952 613
   11.0       07/89              10856             3 265 966
   12.0       10/89              12305             3 797 482
   13.0       01/90              13837             4 347 336
   14.0       04/90              15409             4 914 264
   15.0       08/90              16941             5 486 399
   16.0       11/90              18364             5 986 949
   17.0       02/91              20024             6 524 504
   18.0       05/91              20772             6 792 034
   19.0       08/91              21795             7 173 785
   20.0       11/91              22654             7 500 130
   21.0       03/92              23742             7 866 596
   22.0       05/92              25044             8 375 696
   23.0       08/92              26706             9 011 391
   24.0       12/92              28154             9 545 427
   25.0       04/93              29955            10 214 020
   26.0       07/93              31808            10 875 091
   27.0       10/93              33329            11 484 420
   28.0       02/94              36000            12 496 420
   29.0       06/94              38303            13 464 008
   30.0       10/94              40292            14 147 368
   31.0       02/95              43470            15 335 248
   32.0       11/95              49340            17 385 503
   33.0       02/96              52205            18 531 384
   34.0       10/96              59021            21 210 389
   35.0       11/97              69113            25 083 768
   36.0       07/98              74019            26 840 295
   37.0       12/98              77977            28 268 293
   38.0       07/99              80000            29 085 965


2.1  Sequences and annotations

2'106 sequences  have been added since release 37, the sequence data of 400
existing entries  has been  updated and  the annotations  of 12'576 entries
have been revised.

2.2  What's happening with the model organisms

We have  selected a  number of  organisms that  are the  target  of  genome
sequencing and/or mapping projects and for which we intend to:

o  Be as  complete as possible.  All sequences  available at a given time
   should  be  immediately  included  in  SWISS-PROT.  This also includes
   sequence corrections and updates;
o  Provide a higher level of annotation;
o  Provide  cross-references  to  specialized  database(s) that  contain,
   among other  data,  some genetic information about the genes that code
   for these proteins;
o  Provide specific indices or documents.

Here is the current status of the model organisms in SWISS-PROT:

 Organism        Database            Index file       Number of
                 cross-referenced                     sequences
 --------------  ----------------    --------------   ---------
 A.thaliana      None yet            In preparation         821
 B.subtilis      SubtiList           SUBTILIS.TXT          2069
 C.albicans      None yet            CALBICAN.TXT           221
 C.elegans       Wormpep             CELEGANS.TXT          2202
 D.discoideum    DictyDB             DICTY.TXT              292
 D.melanogaster  FlyBase             FLY.TXT               1088
 E.coli          EcoGene             ECOLI.TXT             4516
 H.influenzae    HiDB (TIGR)         HAEINFLU.TXT          1698
 H.sapiens       MIM                 MIMTOSP.TXT           5406
 H.pylori        HpDB (TIGR)         HPYLORI.TXT            382
 M.genitalium    MgDB (TIGR)         MGENITAL.TXT           469
 M.musculus      MGD                 MGDTOSP.TXT           3549
 M.jannaschii    MjDB (TIGR)         MJANNASC.TXT          1312
 M.tuberculosis  None yet            None yet               928
 S.cerevisiae    SGD                 YEAST.TXT             4811
 S.typhimurium   StyGene             SALTY.TXT              727
 S.pombe         None yet            POMBE.TXT             1438
 S.solfataricus  None yet            None yet                86
 --------------  ----------------    --------------   ---------

Collectively the  entries from the above model organisms represent 38.5% of
all SWISS-PROT entries.

We plan  to finish as quickly as possible the annotation of the Escherichia
coli,  Haemophilus   influenzae,   Methanococcus   jannaschii   and   yeast
(S.cerevisiae) sequence entries which are not yet part of SWISS-PROT.

Please also  see the  description of  the Human  Proteomics  Initiative  in
section 10 of these release notes.

2.3  First steps in the conversion of SWISS-PROT to mixed-case characters

We are gradually converting SWISS-PROT entries from all UPPER CASE to MiXeD
CaSe. The  line-types that  have been  converted between  release 37 and 38
are: DT  (DaTe), OS  (Organism Species),  OC (Organism  Classification), OG
(OrGanelle), RL  (Reference Location)  and KW  (KeyWord). The RT (Reference
Title) lines  were already  introduced in  mixed-case  at  release  37.  As
described in  section 3.1,  the process  of converting all of SWISS-PROT to
mixed case is continuing.

2.4  Small change  in the  format of  RL lines  for submissions  to the DNA

Along with  the conversion  of the  RL to mixed-case (see 2.3) we have also
made a  small change  to the  format of RL lines for submissions to the DNA
databases. What used to be:


is now:

RL   Submitted (MMM-YEAR) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.

This change  was made  to follow  more closely  the format used by the EMBL
nucleotide sequence database.

2.5  Introduction of a new CC line-type topic: MISCELLANEOUS

We have introduced in this release a new 'topic' for the comments (CC) line
type: MISCELLANEOUS.  This topic  is used  for all  comments which  do  not
belong to  any other  already defined  topic. This means that starting with
the current release all comments are now assigned to a topic. Example, what
was previously:


is now:


2.6  Cleaning up of the SIMILARITY comment line (CC) topic

We are  continuing a  major overhaul of the SIMILARITY topic. We would like
the majority  of the  information stored  in this  topic to  be  usable  by
computer  programs   (while  being   human-readable).  We   are   therefore
standardizing the  format of this topic using two different subformats. One
to describe to which family a protein belongs:

CC        [<Name3> SUBFAMILY.]


CC        FAMILY.

And one to describe which domains are found in a given protein:




We have  already updated many entries in this and the previous releases and
plan to complete this change for the next release.

2.7  Changes concerning cross-references (DR line)

We have added cross-references from SWISS-PROT to the Zebrafish Information
Network (ZFIN)  database available  at (see:
Westerfield M.,  Doerry E.,  Kirkpatrick A.E.  and Douglas S.A.; Meth. Cell
Biol. 60:339-355(1999)).  These cross-references  are  present  in  the  DR

Data bank identifier: ZFIN
Primary identifier  : The ZFIN identifiers for a given gene.
Secondary identifier: The gene designation
Example             : DR   ZFIN; ZDB-GENE-980526-290; hoxa1.

We have  started to  add cross-references  from SWISS-PROT  to the CarbBank
Complex        Carbohydrate         Structure        Database        (CCSD)
( These  cross-references are present in the
DR lines:

Data bank identifier: CARBBANK
Primary identifier  : The CarbBank identifier for a given carbohydrate
Secondary identifier: A dash (-).
Example             : DR   CARBBANK; CCSD:27494; -.

In this  release, we have also updated all the DR lines pointing to the MIM
and Pfam databases.

2.8  Switching from  pID to  protein_ID  in  cross-references  to  the  DNA
     sequence databases

The DNA  sequence  databases  (EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ)  recently  changed  their
referencing system  for CDS (CoDing Sequence). They used to associate every
CDS in  the database  with what  was called  a pID. The pID was a string of
variable length  composed of  a letter  (D, E  or G)  followed by  a number
(example: E345673).  Whenever the  protein sequence  coded by  a CDS  would
change due  to a  sequence or annotation revision, a new pID was attributed
to that  CDS. This system made it difficult to track down changes. pID have
therefore been replaced by what is now called protein_ID' (protein sequence
IDentifier). The  protein_ID consists of a stable ID portion (8 characters:
3 letters  followed by  5 numbers)  plus a  version number  after a decimal
point (example:  AAA03208.1). The  version number  only  changes  when  the
protein sequence  coded by  the CDS  changes, while the stable part remains

In release  38, we have converted the cross-references to EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ
to use  the protein_ID  instead of  the pID  as the secondary identifier in
these DR lines. Example, what was previously:

DR   EMBL; Z75208; E1165324; -.

is now:

DR   EMBL; Z75208; CAA99603.1; -.

For a  number of  technical reasons,  there are still 732 pID referenced in
release 38, they will gradually be replaced by the corresponding protein_ID
for release 39.

2.9  Introduction of a unique identifier in the VARIANT feature description
     of human sequence entries

We have  introduced in  release 38  a unique  identifier  for  all  VARIANT
feature keys  in human  sequence entries.  This change  is the  first  step
toward providing  a unique  identifier to  all SWISS-PROT  features.  Human
sequence variants  were chosen  as a  prototype for this improvement. It is
now possible  to directly  link specific  sequence variants to the relevant
entries in disease mutation databases as well as to provide these databases
with a method to implement reciprocal links.

The unique  identifier is  of the  form of /FTId=VAR_nnnnnn and is added as
the last  part of the description field of 'VARIANT' feature keys. Example,
what was previously:

FT   VARIANT       6      6       E -> V (IN S; SICKLE CELL ANEMIA).
FT   VARIANT      11     11       V -> D (IN WINDSOR; O2 AFFINITY UP;
FT                                UNSTABLE).

is now:

FT   VARIANT       6      6       E -> V (IN S; SICKLE CELL ANEMIA).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002863.
FT   VARIANT      11     11       V -> D (IN WINDSOR; O2 AFFINITY UP;
FT                                UNSTABLE).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_002873.


3.1  Continuation of the conversion of SWISS-PROT to mixed-case characters

We will continue to convert SWISS-PROT entries from all UPPER CASE to MiXeD
CaSe. In  release 39  we are  planning to convert the RA (Reference Author)
and RC  (Reference Comment)  line types.  We will  also  convert  the  gene
designations in  the DR  (Database cross-Reference) lines for MGD, EcoGene,
StyGene, SubtiList and DictyDb to mixed case.

Further lines will be converted in release 40.

Here is an example of what a SWISS-PROT entry will look like in release 39:

ID   HXC4_MOUSE     STANDARD;      PRT;   264 AA.
AC   Q08624;
DT   01-OCT-1994 (Rel. 30, Created)
DT   01-OCT-1994 (Rel. 30, Last sequence update)
DT   15-DEC-1999 (Rel. 39, Last annotation update)
OS   Mus musculus (Mouse).
OC   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Mammalia;
OC   Eutheria; Rodentia; Sciurognathi; Muridae; Murinae; Mus.
RN   [1]
RX   MEDLINE; 93288004.
RA   Goto J., Miyabayashi T., Wakamatsu Y., Takahashi N., Muramatsu M.;
RT   "Organization and expression of mouse Hox3 cluster genes.";
RL   Mol. Gen. Genet. 239:41-48(1993).
RN   [2]
RC   TISSUE=Embryo;
RX   MEDLINE; 93161956.
RA   Geada A.M.C., Gaunt S.J., Azzawi M., Shimeld S.M., Pearce J.,
RA   Sharpe P.T.;
RT   "Sequence and embryonic expression of the murine Hox-3.5 gene.";
RL   Development 116:497-506(1992).
RN   [3]
RX   MEDLINE; 92073357.
RA   Murtha M.T., Leckman J.F., Ruddle F.H.;
RT   "Detection of homeobox genes in development and evolution.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:10711-10715(1991).
DR   EMBL; D11328; BAA01947.1; -.
DR   EMBL; S62287; AAB27153.1; -.
DR   EMBL; X69019; CAA48784.1; -.
DR   EMBL; M81660; AAA63313.1; -.
DR   PIR; S35219; S35219.
DR   HSSP; P02833; 1SAN.
DR   MGD; MGI:96195; Hoxc4.
DR   PFAM; PF00046; homeobox; 1.
KW   Homeobox; DNA-binding; Developmental protein; Nuclear protein;
KW   Transcription regulation.
FT   DOMAIN       54     60       POLY-PRO.
FT   DNA_BIND    156    215       HOMEOBOX (BY SIMILARITY).
FT   DOMAIN      183    186       POLY-ARG.
FT   CONFLICT     80     80       A -> G (IN REF. 2).
FT   CONFLICT     96     96       P -> S (IN REF. 2).
SQ   SEQUENCE   264 AA;  29865 MW;  611C069F CRC32;

3.2  Extension of the accession number system

With the  creation of  the TrEMBL  database (see  section 6)  and the rapid
increase in  the amount  of sequence  data, we  are faced with a problem of
availability of  accession numbers.  Currently we  use a  system based on a
one-letter prefix  followed by  5 digits.  This system was also used by the
nucleotide sequence  databases which had originally reserved for SWISS-PROT
the prefix letters O, 'P' and 'Q'. The nucleotide databases, having run out
of space  (due mainly  to EST's),  have been  forced to  start using  a new
format based on a two-letter prefix followed by 6 digits.

We have now used up all possible numbers with O, 'P' and 'Q'. As we believe
that changing  the format  of the accession numbers to that used now by the
nucleotide database  would create  havoc on  the numerous software packages
using SWISS-PROT,  we have  decided to  keep a  system of accession numbers
based on a six-character code, but with the following format extension:

    1        2       3          4            5            6
    [O,P,Q]  [0-9]  [A-Z, 0-9]  [A-Z, 0-9]   [A-Z, 0-9]   [0-9]

What the above means is that we will keep a six-character code, but that in
positions 3,  4 and  5 of  this code any combination of letters and numbers
can be  present. This format allows a total of 14 million accession numbers
(up from 300'000 with the current system).

We only allow numbers in positions 2 and 6 so that the SWISS-PROT accession
numbers can  not be  mistaken with  gene names,  acronyms,  other  type  of
accession numbers or any type of words!

Examples: P0A3S2, Q2ASD4, O13YX2, P9B123

3.3  Introduction of a new FT key: SE_CYS

Selenocysteine is  the 21st natural amino acid. It is now known to occur in
several dozen  proteins. Its  mRNA codon  is UGA, which usually serves as a
stop codon,  but with  a specific  downstream sequence forming a loop and a
specific translational  elongation factor.  It is recognized as the site of
selenocysteine incorporation into proteins.

Very recently  the joint  nomenclature committee  of the  IUPAC/IUBMB  (see
http://      officially     recommended
( a three-letter
and a one-letter symbol for selenocysteine, namely Sec and U.

We recognize that introducing a new one-letter code in the sequence records
would disrupt  most, if  not all,  sequence analysis software. We therefore
decided to  change, in  SWISS-PROT, the rules used to annotate the presence
of selenocysteine  residues in  sequence entries  in the  manner  described

Currently selenocysteines  are stored,  in the  sequence records, using the
one-letter symbol  C for  cysteine and  are indicated  in the feature table
(FT) by a line of the type:

FT   BINDING       x      x       SELENIUM.

The one-letter  code will  not be changed (for the reason explained above),
but we  will introduce  a specific  feature key  (SE_CYS) to  indicate  the
presence of  a selenocysteine  at a  given  sequence  position.  The  above
example will therefore be changed to:

FT   SE_CYS        x      x

We also  want to  remind users  that the keyword Selenocysteine is and will
continue to  be used to tag sequence entries that contain at least one such

3.4  Introduction of a new CC line-type topic: PHARMACEUTICAL

We will  introduce in  the next release a new 'topic' for the comments (CC)
line type:  PHARMACEUTICAL. This  topic will describe the use of a specific
protein as  a pharmaceutical drug. The information provided by such a topic
will include  the brand  name(s) under  which a  protein is  available, the
name(s) of  the compani(es)  that produce it as well as a short description
of the therapeutic usage of the protein.


CC   -!- PHARMACEUTICAL: Available under the names Avonex (Biogen),
CC       Betaseron (Berlex) and Rebif (Serono). Used in the treatment
CC       of multiple sclerosis (MS). Betaseron is a slightly modified
CC       form of IFNB1 with two residue substitutions.

CC   -!- PHARMACEUTICAL: Available under the name Proleukin (Chiron).
CC       Used in patients with renal cell carcinoma or metastatic
CC       melanoma.

It should be noted that any entries containing such a comment field will
also be tagged with the keyword Pharmaceutical.

3.5  Multiple AC lines

Starting with  release 39,  there can  be more than one AC (ACcession) line
per SWISS-PROT entry. Strictly speaking this is not a format change and the
users manual  of SWISS-PROT  always indicated that there could be more than
one AC line per entry. Until recently, a single line was sufficient and the
majority of  entries contained  only a single accession number. But, in the
process of  providing an  optimally non-redundant  database we  are merging
information from  TrEMBL entries  into SWISS-PROT  entries. When we merge a
TrEMBL entry  to a  SWISS-PROT one,  we add  to that  SWISS-PROT entry  the
accession number(s)  of the  TrEMBL entry. The repetition of such a process
sometimes produces  an accession  number list  which can no longer fit in a
single AC  line. Therefore  there will  now be some entries with two, three
(as shown below) or more AC lines.

AC   P16070; P22511; Q04858; Q13419; Q13957; Q13958; Q13959; Q13960;
AC   Q13961; Q13967; Q13968; Q13980; Q15861; Q16064; Q16065; Q16066;
AC   Q16208; Q16522;

3.6  Change in the syntax of the SQ line

The SQ  (SeQuence header) line marks the beginning of the sequence data and
gives a  quick summary  of its  content. The  format  of  the  SQ  line  is


The last information item in the SQ line is a 32-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
Check) value  which is  computed  from  the  sequence.  As  the  number  of
available sequences  is increasing rapidly, there are now a few cases where
two sequences can share the same CRC32 (but none, which also share the same
molecular weight  MW or number of amino acids AA). To address this issue we
will, starting with the next release, replace the 32-bit CRC value by a 64-
bit CRC. The format of the SQ line will therefore be changed to:



SQ   SEQUENCE   233 AA;  25630 MW;  146A1B48A1475C86 CRC64;


SWISS-PROT is  distributed with a large number of documentation files. Some
of these  files have  been available  for a  long time  (the  user  manual,
release notes, the various indices for authors, citations, keywords, etc.),
but many  have been  created recently  and we  are continuously  adding new
files. The  following table  lists all  the documents  that  are  currently

 USERMAN.TXT    User manual
 RELNOTES.TXT   Release notes for current release (38)
 OLDRLNOT.TXT   Release notes for previous release (37)
 SHORTDES.TXT   Short description of entries in SWISS-PROT
 JOURLIST.TXT   List of abbreviations for journals cited
 KEYWLIST.TXT   List of keywords in use
 SPECLIST.TXT   List of organism identification codes
 TISSLIST.TXT   List of tissues [See 1]
 EXPERTS.TXT    List of on-line experts for PROSITE and SWISS-PROT
 SUBMIT.TXT     Submission of sequence data to SWISS-PROT

 ACINDEX.TXT    Accession number index
 AUTINDEX.TXT   Author index
 CITINDEX.TXT   Citation index
 KEYINDEX.TXT   Keyword index
 SPEINDEX.TXT   Species index
 DELETEAC.TXT   Deleted accession number index

 7TMRLIST.TXT   List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptors entries
 AATRNASY.TXT   List of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
 ALLERGEN.TXT   Nomenclature and index of allergen sequences
 ANNBIOCH.TXT   SWISS-PROT annotation:  how is biochemical information
                assigned to sequence entries [See 2]
 BLOODGRP.TXT   List of blood group antigen proteins
 CALBICAN.TXT   Index   of  Candida  albicans  entries   and  their
                corresponding gene designations
 CDLIST.TXT     CD  nomenclature  for  surface  proteins  of  human
 CELEGANS.TXT   Index  of Caenorhabditis elegans entries  and their
                corresponding gene Wormpep cross-references
 DICTY.TXT      Index   of  Dictyostelium  discoideum  entries  and
                their  corresponding gene designations  and DictyDb
 EC2DTOSP.TXT   Index  of  Escherichia coli  Gene-protein  database
                entries referenced in SWISS-PROT
 ECOLI.TXT      Index  of Escherichia coli K12  chromosomal entries
                and their corresponding EcoGene cross-references
 EMBLTOSP.TXT   Index  of   EMBL  Database  entries  referenced  in
 EXTRADOM.TXT   Nomenclature of extracellular domains
 FLY.TXT        Index  of  Drosophila  entries and  FlyBase  cross-
 GLYCOSID.TXT   Classification  of glycosyl hydrolase  families and
                index of glycosyl hydrolase entries
 HAEINFLU.TXT   Index  of  Haemophilus  influenzae  RD  chromosomal
 HOXLIST.TXT    Vertebrate  homeotic Hox proteins: nomenclature and
 HPYLORI.TXT    Index   of   Helicobacter   pylori   strain   26695
                chromosomal entries
 HUMCHR16.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 16 [See 2]
 HUMCHR17.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 17
 HUMCHR18.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 18
 HUMCHR19.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 19
 HUMCHR20.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 20
 HUMCHR21.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 21
 HUMCHR22.TXT   Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome 22
 HUMCHRX.TXT    Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome X
 HUMCHRY.TXT    Index of protein  sequence entries encoded on human
                chromosome Y
 HUMPVAR.TXT    Index of human proteins with sequence variants
 INITFACT.TXT   List and index of translation initiation factors
 MIMTOSP.TXT    Index of MIM entries referenced in SWISS-PROT
 METALLO.TXT    Classification  of  metallothioneins and  index  of
                entries in SWISS-PROT
 MGDTOSP.TXT    Index of MGD entries referenced in SWISS-PROT
 MGENITAL.TXT   Index  of Mycoplasma genitalium chromosomal entries
 MJANNASC.TXT   Index of Methanococcus jannaschii entries
 NGR234.TXT     Table  of   putative  genes  in  Rhizobium  plasmid
 NOMLIST.TXT    List   of  nomenclature   related  references   for
 PCC6803.TXT    Index of Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 entries
 PDBTOSP.TXT    Index  of X-ray  crystallography Protein Data  Bank
                (PDB) entries referenced in SWISS-PROT
 PEPTIDAS.TXT   Classification  of peptidase families and  index of
                peptidase entries
 PLASTID.TXT    List of chloroplast and cyanelle encoded proteins
 POMBE.TXT      Index   of  Schizosaccharomyces  pombe  entries  in
                SWISS-PROT    and    their    corresponding    gene
 RESTRIC.TXT    List of restriction enzyme and methylase entries
 RIBOSOMP.TXT   Index of  ribosomal proteins classified by families
                on the basis of sequence similarities
 SALTY.TXT      Index  of  Salmonella typhimurium  LT2  chromosomal
                entries  and  their  corresponding  StyGene  cross-
 SUBTILIS.TXT   Index of  Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosomal entries
                and their corresponding SubtiList cross-references
 UPFLIST.TXT    UPF  (Uncharacterized  Protein Families)  list  and
                index of members
 YEAST.TXT      Index   of  Saccharomyces  cerevisiae  entries  and
                their corresponding gene designations
 YEAST1.TXT     Yeast Chromosome I entries
 YEAST2.TXT     Yeast Chromosome II entries
 YEAST3.TXT     Yeast Chromosome III entries
 YEAST5.TXT     Yeast Chromosome V entries
 YEAST6.TXT     Yeast Chromosome VI entries
 YEAST7.TXT     Yeast Chromosome VII entries
 YEAST8.TXT     Yeast Chromosome VIII entries
 YEAST9.TXT     Yeast Chromosome IX entries
 YEAST10.TXT    Yeast Chromosome X entries
 YEAST11.TXT    Yeast Chromosome XI entries
 YEAST13.TXT    Yeast Chromosome XIII entries
 YEAST14.TXT    Yeast Chromosome XIV entries

 1. The tissue  list  (tisslist.txt)  has  been  converted  to  mixed-case
 2. The annbioch.txt  and humchr16.txt  files are new documents introduced
    in this release.

We have  continued to  include in  some SWISS-PROT  documentation files the
references of  Web sites relevant to the subject under consideration. There
are now 42 documents that include such links.


5.1  Background information

The most  efficient and user-friendly way to browse interactively in SWISS-
PROT, PROSITE,  ENZYME, SWISS-2DPAGE  and other  databases is  to  use  the
World-Wide Web (WWW) molecular biology server ExPASy. The ExPASy server was
made available  to the  public in  September 1993  and is  reachable at the
following address:


The ExPASy  WWW server  allows access,  using the  user-friendly  hypertext
CD40Lbase databases. And, through any SWISS-PROT protein sequence entry, to
other databases  such as  EMBL, Eco2DBASE, EcoCyc, EcoGene, FlyBase, GCRDb,
MaizeDB,  Mendel,   OMIM,   PDB,   HSSP,   Pfam,   ProDom,   REBASE,   SGD,
SubtiList/NRSub, TRANSFAC,  YPD, ZFIN  and Medline. ExPASy also offers many
tools for the analysis of protein sequences and 2D gels.

5.2  Swiss-Shop

We    provide,     on    ExPASy,     a    service     called     Swiss-Shop
( Swiss-Shop  is  an  automated  sequence
alerting system  which allows  users to  obtain,  by  email,  new  sequence
entries relevant  to their  field(s) of  interest. Various  criteria can be

-  By  entering  one  or  more  words  that  should  be  present  in  the
   description line;
-  By entering one or more species name(s) or taxonomic division(s);
-  By entering one or more keywords;
-  By entering one or more author names;
-  By entering  the accession number (or entry name) of a PROSITE pattern
   or a user-defined sequence pattern;
-  By entering the accession number (or entry name) of an existing SWISS-
   PROT entry or by entering a private sequence.

Every week,  the new  sequences entered  in  SWISS-PROT  are  automatically
compared with  all the  criteria that  have been defined by the users. If a
sequence corresponds  to the  selection criteria  defined by  a user,  that
sequence is sent by electronic mail.

5.3  What is new on ExPASy

ExPASy is  constantly modified  and improved. If you wish to be informed on
the changes made to the server you can either:

-  Read the  document History  of changes,  improvements and new features
   which is available at the address:
-  Subscribe to  Swiss-Flash, a  service that  reports news of databases,
   software and service developments. By subscribing to this service, you
   will automatically  get Swiss-Flash  bulletins by  electronic mail. To
   subscribe use the address: swiss-flash/

Among all  the improvements and the new features introduced during the last
three months,  here are  those that  we believe  are specifically useful to

1. We have switched our default  view of  SWISS-PROT entry to that provided
   by the  NiceProt tool. NiceProt offers  a user-friendly  tabular view of
   SWISS-PROT  entries.  Access  to   the  original  SWISS-PROT  format  is
   maintained and  is directly available from the NiceProt view. Tools with
   similar functionalities have been  developed to  display the  ENZYME and
   PROSITE databases (see section 8.1 and 8.2).
2. We have  revised  the  ExPASy file  and directory structure, in order to
   have the  vast amount  of data  that has accumulated on the server since
   September 1993  available in a more structured manner, and to facilitate
   replication on our mirror sites. This has caused certain changes in html
   links, and you should update your bookmarks and links accordingly. If in
   doubt, please refer to the document 'How to create html links to ExPASy'
   ( At the same  time  we  wish  to
   reiterate our  announcement of the  ExPASy  mirror  sites  in  Australia
   ( and Taiwan (
   For your own convenience,  please use  the mirror  site closest  to you.
   Please also make sure  to update all bookmarks or links that use the old
   domain,  which was replaced by  in  March
   1997! The '' address might be disabled in the near future.
3. WWW  links  have  been  implemented  between  SWISS-PROT  and  CarbBank,
   EcoGene and ZFIN.


The ongoing  genome  sequencing  and  mapping  projects  have  dramatically
increased the  number of  protein sequences  to be incorporated into SWISS-
PROT. Since we do not want to dilute the quality standards of SWISS-PROT by
incorporating sequences  into the database without proper sequence analysis
and annotation,  we cannot  speed up the incorporation of new incoming data
indefinitely. But  as we  also want to make the sequences available as fast
as possible,  we have  introduced  with  SWISS-PROT  a  computer  annotated
supplement. This  supplement consists  of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format
derived from  the translation  of all  coding sequences  (CDS) in  the EMBL
nucleotide sequence database, except those already included in SWISS-PROT.

This supplement  is  named  TrEMBL  (Translation  from  EMBL).  It  can  be
considered as  a preliminary section of SWISS-PROT. This SWISS-PROT release
is supplemented by TrEMBL release 11. TrEMBL is split in two main sections;

SP-TrEMBL (SWISS-PROT  TrEMBL) contains the entries (199'794 in release 11)
which should  be incorporated into SWISS-PROT. SWISS-PROT accession numbers
have been assigned for all SP-TrEMBL entries.

REM-TrEMBL (REMaining  TrEMBL) contains  the entries (45'967 in release 11)
that we  do not  want to  include in  SWISS-PROT for  a variety  of reasons
(synthetic sequences,  pseudogenes, translations  of incorrect open reading
frames,  fragments   with  less  than  eight  amino  acids,  patent-derived
sequences, immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, etc.)

TrEMBL is available by FTP from the EBI and ExPASy servers in the directory
databases/trembl'. It  can be  queried on  WWW by  the EBI  and ExPASy  SRS
servers. It  is also  searchable on  the FASTA, BIC_SW and BLAST servers of
the EBI.


7.1  Generalities

SWISS-PROT is  available  for  download  on  the  following  anonymous  FTP

Organization   Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB)
Directory      /databases/swiss-prot/

Organization   European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI)
Directory      /pub/databases/swissprot/

7.2  Weekly updates of SWISS-PROT

Weekly updates  of SWISS-PROT  are available  by anonymous FTP. Three files
are generated at each update:

new_seq.dat    Contains all the new entries since the last full release;
upd_seq.dat    Contains the  entries for  which the  sequence data has been
               updated since the last release;
upd_ann.dat    Contains the entries for which one or more annotation fields
               have been updated since the last release.

Important notes

o Although we try to follow a regular schedule, we do not promise to update
  these files  every week.  In most  cases two weeks may elapse between two
o Instead of  using the  above files,  you can,  every  week,  download  an
  updated copy  of the  SWISS-PROT database.  This file is available in the
  directory containing the non-redundant database (see next section).

7.3  Non-redundant database

More than  a year  ago, we  started to distribute on the ExPASy and EBI FTP
servers, files  that make  up a  non-redundant (see  further) and  complete
protein sequence database consisting of three components:

3) New  entries to  be later  integrated into  TrEMBL (hereafter  known  as

Every week  three files  are completely  rebuilt. These  files  are  named:
sprot.dat.Z, trembl.dat.Z  and trembl_new.dat.Z.  As indicated  by their .Z
extension these  are Unix  compress format  files which, when decompressed,
will produce ASCII files in SWISS-PROT format.

Three  other  files  are  also  available  (sprot.fas.Z,  trembl.fas.Z  and
trembl_new.fas.Z) which  are compressed  fasta format sequence files useful
for building  the  databases  used  by  FASTA,  BLAST  and  other  sequence
similarity search  programs. Please  do not  use these  files for any other
purpose, as  you will  lose all  annotations by  using this  very primitive

The files  for the  non-redundant database  are  stored  in  the  directory
/databases/sp_tr_nrdb on  the ExPASy  FTP server ( and in the
directory /pub/databases/sp_tr_nrdb on the EBI FTP server (

Additional notes

o The SWISS-PROT  file continuously  grows as  new annotated  sequences are

o The TrEMBL  file decreases  in size  as sequences  are moved  out of that
  section after  being annotated  and moved  into SWISS-PROT.  Four times a
  year a  new release  of TrEMBL  is built at EBI, at this point the TrEMBL
  file increases  in size as it then includes all of the new data (see next
  section) that has accumulated since the last release.

o The TrEMBL_New file starts as a very small file and grows in size until a
  new release of TrEMBL is available.

o SWISS-PROT and  TrEMBL  share  the  same  system  of  accession  numbers.
  Therefore you  will not  find any  primary  accession  number  duplicated
  between the  two sections.  A TrEMBL  entry (and its associated accession
  number(s)) can  either move  to SWISS-PROT as new entry or be merged with
  an existing SWISS-PROT entry. In the latter case, the accession number(s)
  of that TrEMBL entry are added to that of the SWISS-PROT entry.

o TrEMBL_New does not have real accession numbers. However it was necessary
  to have  an AC  line so  as to  be able to use it with different software
  products. This  AC line contains a temporary identifier which consists of
  the protein_ID  (protein sequence  identifier) of  the coding sequence in
  the parent nucleotide sequence.

o TrEMBL_New is  quite messy!  You will of course find new sequence entries
  but you will also encounter sequences that are going to be used to update
  existing TrEMBL  or SWISS-PROT entries. None of the "cleaning" steps that
  are applied to produce a TrEMBL release are run on TrEMBL_New nor are any
  of the  computer-annotation software  tools that  are used to enhance the
  information content  of TrEMBL. TrEMBL_New is provided only so that users
  can be  sure not  to miss  any important  new  sequences  when  they  run
  similarity searches.

o While these  three files  allow you to build what we call a non-redundant
  database, it  must be noted that this is not completely a true statement.
  Without going  into a  long explanation we can say that this is currently
  the best  attempt in  providing a  complete selection of protein sequence
  entries while  trying  to  eliminate  redundancies.  Also  SWISS-PROT  is
  completely (well  99.994% !) non-redundant, TrEMBL is far from being non-
  redundant and the addition of SWISS-PROT + TrEMBL is even less.

o To describe  to your users the version of the non-redundant database that
  you are providing them with, you should use a statement of the form:

     SWISS-PROT release 38 and updates until <current_date>;
     TrEMBL  release  11  minus  data  integrated  into  SWISS-PROT  as  of
     New preliminary TrEMBL entries created since release 11 of TrEMBL


8.1  The ENZYME nomenclature database

Release 25.0  of the  ENZYME  nomenclature  database  is  distributed  with
release 38 of SWISS-PROT. ENZYME release 25.0 contains information relative
to 3704  enzymes. In  this release,  we have  added a significant number of
synonyms (AN lines) to a number of entries.

The WWW  version of  ENZYME on  ExPASy now  provides a  more  user-friendly
tabular view of enzyme entries through a new tool called NiceZyme. NiceZyme
also provides  direct links,  through  Medline,  to  literature  references
relevant to  a specific enzyme. You can use this tool to link to any ENZYME
entry  by  using  the  following  type  of  URL:
bin/ (where  a.b.c.d is  any  valid  enzyme  EC  number;

Please also  note that  the URL  of the  top page  of ENZYME  has moved to:

8.2  The PROSITE database

Release 16.0  of the  PROSITE database  is distributed  with release  38 of
SWISS-PROT. This  release of  PROSITE contains  1034 documentation  entries
that describe  1'374 different patterns, rules and profiles/matrices. Since
release 15.0, 20 entries have been added and 180 entries have been updated.

The WWW  version of  PROSITE on  ExPASy now  provides a  more user-friendly
tabular view  of enzyme entries through a new tool called NiceSite. You can
use this  tool to link to any PROSITE entry by using the following types of
URL: (where PSxxxxx is any
valid  PROSITE  pattern  or  matrix  entry)  and
bin/ (where  PDOCxxxxx is  any valid  PROSITE  document

Please also  note that  the URL  of the  top page  of PROSITE has moved to:


We welcome feedback from our users. We would especially appreciate that you
notify us  if you  find that sequences belonging to your field of expertise
are missing  from the  database. We  also would  like to  be notified about
annotations to  be updated,  if, for example, the function of a protein has
been clarified or if new information about post-translational modifications
has become  available. To  facilitate this feedback we offer, on the ExPASy
WWW server, a form that allows the submission of updates and/or corrections


It is  also possible,  from any entry in SWISS-PROT displayed by the ExPASy
server, to  submit updates  and/or corrections  for that  particular entry.
Finally, you can also send your comments by electronic mail to the address:


Note that  since January  1999, all  update requests  are assigned a unique
identifier of  the form  UR-Xnnnn (example:  UR-A0123). This  identifier is
used internally  by the  SWISS-PROT staff  at SIB and EBI to track down the
fate of  requests and  is also  be used in email exchanges with the persons
having submitted a request.


In a  few months the combined efforts of a number of sequencing centers and
companies will  produce a first draft of the human genome sequence. Such an
endeavor is  only a  very preliminary  step in  the understanding  of human
biological processes. The first pitfall to overcome is the detection of all
coding regions  on the  genomic sequence.  Current algorithms,  while being
very powerful,  are not  capable of detecting with certainty all exons, are
not well  equipped to  distinguish different splice variants and are unable
to detect small proteins (which are numerous and crucial to many biological
processes). Even when all potential coding regions have been predicted, the
user community  will have  at its disposition the sequence of from 80000 to
100000 naked  proteins.  We  call  these  proteins  naked  because  genomic
information does  not allow  the efficient  prediction  of  all  the  post-
translational modifications (PTM) of which the majority of proteins are the
target. Proteins,  once synthesized  on the  ribosomes, are  subject  to  a
multitude  of   modification  steps.   The  complexity  due  to  all  these
modifications is compounded by the high level of diversity that alternative
splicing can produce at the level of sequence. Thus the number of different
protein molecules  expressed by  the human  genome is  probably closer to a
million than  to  the  hundred  thousand  generally  considered  by  genome
scientists. Another factor of complexity to take into account is the amount
of polymorphism  at  the  protein  sequence  level.  While  some  of  these
polymorphisms are  linked to disease states, most are not, yet have in many
cases a direct or indirect effect on the activities of the proteins.

We therefore  are initiating  a major  project to  annotate all known human
sequences according  to the  quality standards  of SWISS-PROT.  This  means
providing, for  each known  protein, a  wealth of information that includes
the  description   of  its  function,  its  domain  structure,  subcellular
location, post-translational modifications, variants, similarities to other
proteins, etc.  There are currently slightly more than 5400 annotated human
sequences in  SWISS-PROT. These  entries are  associated with  about  14500
literature references;  16000 experimental  or predicted  PTMs, 800  splice
variants and  8000 polymorphisms  (most of  which are  linked with  disease
states). We  will use  the current information as the ground basis for what
we call the Human Proteomics Initiative (HPI).

The HPI  project contains  a number  of sub-components,  which are  briefly
described below:

- Annotation of  all known  human proteins.  In the course of the next nine
  months (from  July 1999 to end of March 2000) the human protein sequences
  that are  not yet  in SWISS-PROT  will be  fully annotated.  We will also
  review and  complete the  annotation of  the human sequences currently in
  SWISS-PROT. At the end of this nine-month period we expect to be complete
  and up-to-date  and to  hereafter keep up with the appearance of new data
  relevant to human proteins.
- Annotation of  mammalian orthologs  of human  proteins. We will make sure
  that for  any human  proteins,  existing  orthologs  in  other  mammalian
  species will  also be  annotated at  a level  equivalent to  that of  the
  cognate human sequences.
- Annotation of  all known  human polymorphisms  at  the  protein  sequence
  level. As  mentioned above,  SWISS-PROT already  holds information  on  a
  sizeable amount  of such  polymorphisms, and it will significantly expand
  its effort  to store  and annotate  all small  variations at  the protein
- Annotation  of   all  known  post-translational  modifications  in  human
  proteins. During  the next  nine months  a major  effort will  be made to
  supplement the  already quite  comprehensive description  of known  post-
  translational modifications  in  human  proteins  currently  provided  in
- Tight links  to structural  information. SWISS-PROT  is tightly linked to
  the PDB/RCSB  3D-structure database  and already  includes many  features
  useful to  structural biologists.  These  tight  links  will  be  further
  expanded by  providing homology-derived models for all human proteins for
  which such an approach is scientifically relevant.

For all  aspects of  the HPI  projects, we  would appreciate  the help  and
collaboration of the scientific community. Information concerning the human
proteome is  highly critical  to  a  large  section  of  the  life  science
community. We  therefore appeal  to the user community to fully participate
in this  initiative by  providing all the necessary information to help and
to speed up the comprehensive annotation of the human proteome.

The HPI  project has  two different time-related aspects: one of which is a
nine-month "marathon"  to catch  up with the current state of research, the
other one is a long-term commitment to keep such a project alive as long as
it is  necessary. For  a detailed  description of  the HPI  project and its
current status please consult:



It became  obvious in  the last  years that the tremendous increase in data
flow has  created a  requirement for resources which cannot be addressed in
full by  public funding.  This is  causing databases  to  fall  behind  the
research. We believe that the only solution to the resource shortfall is to
ask commercial  users to  participate by paying a license fee. No fee is or
will be  charged to  academic users,  nor is  any restriction be imposed on
their use  or reuse  of the data. Both SWISS-PROT and PROSITE are concerned
by these changes, while this is not the case of ENZYME.

A document  fully describing  what will  be the  impact of  this change for
SWISS-PROT is  available with  the SWISS-PROT  distribution  files  on  FTP
(sp_info.txt). You  can also  access the document as well as other relevant
ones from:


If you do not have the time to read this document, the most important take-
home message is that these changes do not have any impact on the way SWISS-
PROT or  PROSITE are  accessed or  redistributed. Academic  users  are  not
affected by  these changes.  Industrial end-users  are  also  not  directly
affected as  long as  their employer  pays the  license fee. The same holds
true for bioinformatics companies. Academic software or database developers
as well  as providers  of database distribution services are only minimally
affected by  these changes. We hope to be able to keep the spirit of SWISS-
PROT and  PROSITE alive  and  at  the  same  time  ensure  their  long-term
financial survival.  We sincerely  hope and  believe that  in the  next two
years the  only change  that will  matter will be the increase in scope and
timeliness of the databases.


                         APPENDIX A: SOME STATISTICS

   A.1  Amino acid composition

        A.1.1  Composition in percent for the complete data bank

   Ala (A) 7.58   Gln (Q) 3.97   Leu (L) 9.43   Ser (S) 7.13
   Arg (R) 5.16   Glu (E) 6.36   Lys (K) 5.94   Thr (T) 5.67
   Asn (N) 4.44   Gly (G) 6.84   Met (M) 2.37   Trp (W) 1.24
   Asp (D) 5.27   His (H) 2.24   Phe (F) 4.10   Tyr (Y) 3.19
   Cys (C) 1.66   Ile (I) 5.81   Pro (P) 4.92   Val (V) 6.58

   Asx (B) 0.001  Glx (Z) 0.001  Xaa (X) 0.01

        A.1.2  Classification of the amino acids by their frequency

   Leu, Ala, Ser, Gly, Val, Glu, Lys, Ile, Thr, Asp, Arg, Pro, Asn, Phe,
   Gln, Tyr, Met, His, Cys, Trp

   A.2  Repartition of the sequences by their organism of origin

   Total number of species represented in this release of SWISS-PROT: 6580

   The first twenty species represent 37741 sequences: 47.2 % of the total
   number of entries.

   A.2.1 Table of the frequency of occurrence of species

        Species represented 1x: 3122
                            2x: 1013
                            3x:  509
                            4x:  363
                            5x:  243
                            6x:  225
                            7x:  154
                            8x:  127
                            9x:  105
                           10x:   62
                       11- 20x:  304
                       21- 50x:  191
                       51-100x:   73
                         >100x:   89

   A.2.2  Table of the most represented species

  ------  ---------  --------------------------------------------
  Number  Frequency  Species
  ------  ---------  --------------------------------------------
       1       5406  Homo sapiens (Human)
       2       4811  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast)
       3       4516  Escherichia coli
       4       3549  Mus musculus (Mouse)
       5       2630  Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
       6       2069  Bacillus subtilis
       7       2002  Caenorhabditis elegans
       8       1698  Haemophilus influenzae
       9       1438  Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast)
      10       1313  Methanococcus jannaschii
      11       1149  Bos taurus (Bovine)
      12       1088  Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
      13        928  Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      14        894  Gallus gallus (Chicken)
      15        821  Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
      16        729  Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
      17        727  Salmonella typhimurium
      18        699  Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803)
      19        670  Sus scrofa (Pig)
      20        604  Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit)
      21        490  Mycoplasma pneumoniae
      22        469  Mycoplasma genitalium
      23        446  Zea mays (Maize)
      24        403  Rhizobium sp. (strain NGR234)
      25        382  Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori)
      26        368  Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      27        337  Oryza sativa (Rice)
      28        308  Canis familiaris (Dog)
      29        296  Nicotiana tabacum (Common tobacco)
      30        292  Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
      31        277  Treponema pallidum
      32        272  Bacteriophage T4
      33        269  Ovis aries (Sheep)
                269  Mycobacterium leprae
      35        266  Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease spirochete)
      36        263  Pisum sativum (Garden pea)
      37        255  Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum
      38        253  Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen)
      39        239  Glycine max (Soybean)
      40        228  Staphylococcus aureus
      41        227  Neurospora crassa
      42        226  Hordeum vulgare (Barley)
      43        221  Candida albicans (Yeast)
      44        219  Porphyra purpurea
      45        216  Archaeoglobus fulgidus
      46        211  Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato)
      47        209  Triticum aestivum (Wheat)
      48        205  Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
      49        204  Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rhodopseudomonas capsulata)
      50        199  Klebsiella pneumoniae
      51        196  Pseudomonas putida
      52        193  Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169)
      53        192  Bacillus stearothermophilus
      54        186  Vaccinia virus (strain WR)
      55        172  Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig)
      56        170  Agrobacterium tumefaciens
      57        169  Spinacia oleracea (Spinach)
      58        159  Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
      59        158  Rhizobium meliloti
      60        154  Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus
      61        153  Emericella nidulans (Aspergillus nidulans)
      62        152  Mesocricetus auratus (Golden hamster)
      63        151  Marchantia polymorpha (Liverwort)
      64        150  Streptomyces coelicolor
                150  Equus caballus (Horse)
      66        148  Guillardia theta (Cryptomonas phi)
      67        147  Cyanophora paradoxa
      68        146  Variola virus
      69        142  Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis) (Streptococcus lactis)
      70        139  Odontella sinensis
      71        134  Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid polyhedrosis virus
      72        133  Kluyveromyces lactis (Yeast)
      73        128  Brachydanio rerio (Zebrafish) (Zebra danio)
      74        127  Trypanosoma brucei brucei
                127  Synechococcus sp. (strain PCC 7942)
      76        126  Thermus aquaticus (subsp. thermophilus)
      77        120  Alcaligenes eutrophus
                118  Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120)
      79        116  Bombyx mori (Silk moth)
      80        115  Bradyrhizobium japonicum
      81        113  Yersinia enterocolitica
      82        112  Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout) (Salmo gairdneri)
      83        111  Aquifex aeolicus
                108  Streptococcus pneumoniae
      85        107  Brassica napus (Rape)
      86        104  Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      87        103  Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque)
                103  Felis silvestris catus (Cat)
      89        102  Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides)

   A.3  Repartition of the sequences by size

               From   To  Number             From   To   Number
                  1-  50    3213             1001-1100      722
                 51- 100    6704             1101-1200      553
                101- 150    9719             1201-1300      377
                151- 200    7640             1301-1400      251
                201- 250    7202             1401-1500      210
                251- 300    6703             1501-1600      133
                301- 350    6294             1601-1700      117
                351- 400    6438             1701-1800       89
                401- 450    4831             1801-1900       94
                451- 500    4566             1901-2000       65
                501- 550    3444             2001-2100       37
                551- 600    2308             2101-2200       80
                601- 650    1801             2201-2300       75
                651- 700    1326             2301-2400       40
                701- 750    1159             2401-2500       42
                751- 800     956             >2500          232
                801- 850     762
                851- 900     798
                901- 950     552
                951-1000     467

   A.4  Longest sequences

   The longest sequences (>=4000 residues) are listed here:

                              BACA_BACLI  5255
                              HTS1_COCCA  5217
                              MUC2_HUMAN  5179
                              FAT_DROME   5147
                              RYNR_RABIT  5037
                              RYNR_PIG    5035
                              RYNR_HUMAN  5032
                              RYNC_RABIT  4969
                              LRP_CAEEL   4753
                              DYHC_DICDI  4725
                              PLEC_RAT    4687
                              LRP2_RAT    4660
                              LRP2_HUMAN  4655
                              DYHC_RAT    4644
                              DYHC_DROME  4639
                              DYHC_CAEEL  4568
                              DYHB_CHLRE  4568
                              APB_HUMAN   4563
                              APOA_HUMAN  4548
                              LRP1_HUMAN  4544
                              LRP1_CHICK  4543
                              DYHC_PARTE  4540
                              RRPA_CVMJH  4488
                              DYHG_CHLRE  4485
                              DYHC_ANTCR  4466
                              DYHC_TRIGR  4466
                              GRSB_BACBR  4451
                              PKSK_BACSU  4447
                              PKSL_BACSU  4427
                              PGBM_HUMAN  4393
                              YP73_CAEEL  4385
                              DYHC_NEUCR  4367
                              DYHC_FUSSO  4349
                              DYHC_EMENI  4344
                              PKD1_HUMAN  4303
                              DYHC_SCHPO  4196
                              DYHC_YEAST  4092
                              RRPA_CVH22  4085
                              RRPL_DUGBV  4036

   A.5  Statistics for journal citations

   Total number of journals cited in this release of SWISS-PROT: 1011

   A.5.1 Table of the frequency of journal citations

        Journals cited 1x: 381
                       2x: 130
                       3x:  84
                       4x:  46
                       5x:  39
                       6x:  23
                       7x:  15
                       8x:  15
                       9x:  14
                      10x:  14
                  11- 20x:  75
                  21- 50x:  71
                  51-100x:  24
                    >100x:  80

   A.5.2  List of the most cited journals in SWISS-PROT

   Nb    Citations   Journal abbreviation
   --    ---------   ----------------------------------
    1    6683        J. Biol. Chem.
    2    4031        Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
    3    3434        Nucleic Acids Res.
    4    2868        J. Bacteriol.
    5    2714        Gene
    6    2162        FEBS Lett.
    7    2046        Eur. J. Biochem.
    8    1915        Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
    9    1888        Biochemistry
   10    1788        EMBO J.
   11    1684        Nature
   12    1542        Biochim. Biophys. Acta
   13    1462        J. Mol. Biol.
   14    1321        Cell
   15    1240        Mol. Cell. Biol.
   16    1042        Genomics
   17     999        Mol. Gen. Genet.
   18     987        Plant Mol. Biol.
   19     956        Biochem. J.
   20     867        Science
   21     828        Mol. Microbiol.
   22     786        Virology
   23     714        J. Biochem.
   24     534        J. Virol.
   25     487        Yeast
   26     485        J. Cell Biol.
   27     465        Plant Physiol.
   28     465        J. Gen. Virol.
   29     437        Hum. Mol. Genet.
   30     427        Genes Dev.
   31     398        Hum. Mutat.
   32     371        J. Immunol.
   33     367        Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
   34     348        Infect. Immun.
   35     346        Oncogene
   36     336        Structure
   37     329        Curr. Genet.
   38     311        Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
   39     307        FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
   40     307        Am. J. Hum. Genet.
   41     301        Nat. Genet.
   42     267        Development
   43     265        Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler
   44     256        Microbiology
   45     252        J. Clin. Invest.
   46     250        Mol. Endocrinol.
   47     249        Nat. Struct. Biol.
   48     234        J. Mol. Evol.
   49     233        Hum. Genet.
   50     231        Genetics
   51     222        J. Gen. Microbiol.
   52     213        Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem.
   53     206        DNA Cell Biol.
   54     204        Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
   55     196        Protein Sci.
   56     193        J. Exp. Med.
   57     193        Blood
   58     189        Dev. Biol.
   59     184        Neuron
   60     164        Immunogenetics
   61     152        DNA Seq.
   62     152        DNA
   63     151        Endocrinology
   64     140        Plant Cell
   65     132        Cancer Res.
   66     125        Plant J.
   67     119        Mol. Biol. Evol.
   68     118        Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
   69     117        Mech. Dev.
   70     117        J. Neurochem.
   71     117        Biochimie
   72     116        Hemoglobin
   73     116        Bioorg. Khim.
   74     115        Acta Crystallogr. D
   75     113        Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
   76     111        Virus Res.
   77     110        Agric. Biol. Chem.
   78     106        Mamm. Genome
   79     106        J. Neurosci.
   80     103        Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.



   The current  status of  the relationships (cross-references) between
   SWISS-PROT and some biomolecular databases is shown in the following

                         *  EMBL Nucleotide    *
                         *  Sequence Database  *
                         *       [EBI]         *
                           ^ ^ ^  ^  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
******************         | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
* FlyBase        * <-------+ | |  I  | | | | +-------> * MGD [Mouse]        *
******************         | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
                           | | |  I  | | | | |
******************         | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
* SubtiList      * <---------+ |  I  | | | +---------> * GCRDb [7TM recep.] *
* [B.subtilis]   *         | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
******************         | | |  I  | | | | |
                           | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
******************         | | |  I  | | +-----------> * EcoGene [E.coli]   *
* Mendel [Plant] * <-----+ | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
******************       | | | |  I  | | | | |
                         | | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
******************       | | | |  I  +---------------> * SGD [Yeast]        *
* MaizeDb        * <-----------+  I  | | | | |         **********************
* [Zea mays]     *       | | | |  I  | | | | |
******************       | | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
                         | | | |  I  | +-------------> * DictyDB [D.disco.] *
******************       | | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
* WormPep        *       | | | |  I  | | | | |
* [C.elegans]    * <---+ | | | |  I  | | | | |         **********************
******************     | | | | |  I  | | | | | +-----> * ENZYME [Nomencl.]  *
                       | | | | |  I  | | | | | |       **********************
******************     | v v v v  v  v v v v v v           v
* REBASE         *     *************************       **********************
* [Restriction   * <-- *   SWISS-PROT          * ----> * OMIM [Human]       *
*  enzymes]      *     *   Protein Sequence    *       **********************
******************     *   Data Bank           *
                       *************************       **********************
******************      ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | ^ ^ ^          * ECO2DBASE     [2D] *
* StyGene        *      | | | | | | | | | | +--------> **********************
* [S.typhimurium]* <----+ | | | | | | | | |
******************        | | | | | | | | |            **********************
                          | | | | | | | | +----------> * Maize-2DPAGE  [2D] *
******************        | | | | | | | |              **********************
* TRANSFAC       * <------+ | | | | | | |
******************          | | | | | | |              **********************
                            | | | | | | +------------> * SWISS-2DPAGE  [2D] *
******************          | | | | | |                **********************
* Harefield [2D] * <--------+ | | | | |
******************            | | | | |                **********************
                              | | | | +--------------> * Aarhus/Ghent  [2D] *
******************            | | | |                  **********************
* PROSITE        *            | | | |
* [Patterns and  * <----------+ | | +----------------> **********************
* profiles]      *              | |                    * YEPD [Yeast]  [2D] *
******************              | +----------------+   **********************
             |                  v                  |
             |          ***********************    +-> **********************
             +--------> * PDB [3D structures] * <----- * HSSP [3D similar.] *
                        ***********************        **********************