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Encoded on

Last modified September 13, 2013

This subsection of the ‘Names and taxonomy’ section indicates if the gene coding for the protein originates from the hydrogenosome, the mitochondrion, the nucleomorph, different plastids or a plasmid. The absence of this section means that the gene is located in one of the main chromosomal element(s).

Examples: Hydrogenosome, Nucleomorph

6 categories exist for plastids:

  • ‘Chloroplast’ indicates the organism is photosynthetic.
  • ‘Non-photosynthetic plastid’ is used when the organism is from a photosynthetic lineage but genetically unable to photosynthesize, as happens with some parasitic plants (Epifagus virginiana, Aneura mirabilis), a parastic “green” algae (Helicosporidium sp. subsp. Simulium jonesii) and a euglenoid (Astasia longa).
  • ‘Cyanelle’ is used for the plastid of the glaucophyte algae. It has the remnants of a cell wall between its surrounding membranes.
  • ‘Apicoplast’ is used for plastids from the non-photosynthetic Apicocomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Eimeria which cause malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidian diseases respectively. Although the plastid remnant has a reduced coding capacity it is essential for cell survival, and is interesting as a drug target.
  • ‘Organellar chromatophore’ is used for the plastid of the thecate amoeba Paulinella chromatophora, which has a very large endosymbiont genome (1.0 Mb, encoding almost 900 proteins).
  • ‘Plastid’ (without any qualifier) is used for some parasitic plants (mostly from the genus Cuscuta) which may be briefly photosynthetic when very young.

Being quite small plastids are easily sequenced. A list of fully sequenced plastid genomes, of their genes and the nomenclature of known plastid-encoded proteins can be found in the document Nomenclature of plastid-encoded proteins.

If an entry reports the sequence of a protein encoded on a number of plasmids, the names of all plasmids are listed.
Example: P04958

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