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Swiss-Prot release 41.0

Published February 1, 2003

                                          Swiss-Prot Protein Knowledgebase
                                                             Release Notes
                                                 Release 41, February 2003

                             Table of contents

 1   Introduction
 2   Description of the changes made to Swiss-Prot since release 40
 3   Forthcoming changes
 4   Status of the documentation files
 5   The ExPASy World-Wide Web server
 6   TrEMBL - a supplement to Swiss-Prot
 7   FTP access to Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL
 9   We need your help!
 A   Appendix A

                             1   Introduction

Release 41.0 of Swiss-Prot contains 122'564 sequence entries, comprising
44'986'459 amino acids abstracted from 103'486 references. This represents
an increase of 20% over release 40.0. The growth of the database is
summarized below.

      Release    Date   Number of   Number of
                         entries   amino acids
        2.0     09/86      3'939      900'163
        3.0     11/86      4'160      969'641
        4.0     04/87      4'387    1'036'010
        5.0     09/87      5'205    1'327'683
        6.0     01/88      6'102    1'653'982
        7.0     04/88      6'821    1'885'771
        8.0     08/88      7'724    2'224'465
        9.0     11/88      8'702    2'498'140
        10.0    03/89     10'008    2'952'613
        11.0    07/89     10'856    3'265'966
        12.0    10/89     12'305    3'797'482
        13.0    01/90     13'837    4'347'336
        14.0    04/90     15'409    4'914'264
        15.0    08/90     16'941    5'486'399
        16.0    11/90     18'364    5'986'949
        17.0    02/91     20'024    6'524'504
        18.0    05/91     20'772    6'792'034
        19.0    08/91     21'795    7'173'785
        20.0    11/91     22'654    7'500'130
        21.0    03/92     23'742    7'866'596
        22.0    05/92     25'044    8'375'696
        23.0    08/92     26'706    9'011'391
        24.0    12/92     28'154    9'545'427
        25.0    04/93     29'955   10'214'020
        26.0    07/93     31'808   10'875'091
        27.0    10/93     33'329   11'484'420
        28.0    02/94     36'000   12'496'420
        29.0    06/94     38'303   13'464'008
        30.0    10/94     40'292   14'147'368
        31.0    02/95     43'470   15'335'248
        32.0    11/95     49'340   17'385'503
        33.0    02/96     52'205   18'531'384
        34.0    10/96     59'021   21'210'389
        35.0    11/97     69'113   25'083'768
        36.0    07/98     74'019   26'840'295
        37.0    12/98     77'977   28'268'293
        38.0    07/99     80'000   29'085'965
        39.0    05/00     86'593   31'411'114
        40.0    10/01    101'602   37'315'215
        41.0    02/03    122'564   44'986'459

    2   Description of the changes made to Swiss-Prot since release 40

     2.1   Sequences and annotations

21'133 sequences have been added since release 40, the sequence data of
3'251 existing entries has been updated and the annotations of 57'525
entries have been revised.

     2.2   The HPI project

The Human Proteomics Initiative (HPI) puts a major effort on the annotation
of all known human sequences according to the quality standards of
Swiss-Prot. This means that, for each known protein, a wealth of
information is provided, which includes the description of its function,
its domain structure, subcellular location, post-translational
modifications (PTMs), variants, similarities to other proteins, etc. This
not only implies the annotation of newly detected proteins, but also the
integration of new research data into the existing entries by specialized
biologists, who are in close contact with experts all over the world.

There are currently 9'172 annotated human sequences in Swiss-Prot.
Up-to-date detailed statistics concerning the HPI project are available at:

Simultaneously, two further efforts were increased: the description of
human diseases associated with deficiency(ies) in the protein, and
mammalian orthologs of human proteins are annotated at a level equivalent
to that of the cognate human sequences.

For all aspects of the HPI project, we would appreciate the help and
collaboration of the scientific community. Information concerning the human
proteome is highly critical to a large section of the life science
community. We therefore appeal to the user community to fully participate
in this initiative by providing all the necessary information to define and
to speed up the comprehensive annotation of the human proteome.

For a detailed description of the HPI project please consult:

     2.3   The HAMAP project

The first complete microbial genome sequence was that of the bacterium
Haemophilus influenzae, which became available in 1995. Since then, more
than 100 bacterial and archaeal genomes have been sequenced and many more
sequencing projects of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes are in
progress. To date, the publicly available microbial genomes encode more
than 230'000 different proteins.

In order to handle the large amount of "raw" data coming from microbial
genome sequencing, the High quality Automated Microbial Annotation of
Proteomes (HAMAP) project was initiated. The project aims to automatically
annotate a significant percentage of protein sequences, which originate
from microbial genome sequencing projects.

To maintain a high level quality of annotation, specific tools are
developed to deal with two completely separate subsets of bacterial and
archaeal proteins: proteins that have no recognizable similarity to any
other microbial or non-microbial proteins ("ORFans") and proteins that are
part of well-defined families or subfamilies. This is done by using a rule
system that describes the level and extent of annotations that can be
assigned by similarity with a prototype manually annotated entry. The
result is a curated entry whose quality is identical to that produced
manually by an expert annotator.

Programs under development are designed to recognize protein peculiarities,
and only proteins which match the defined criteria are processed
automatically. Protein sequences which fail to fit into the rule system are
further analyzed by Swiss-Prot expert annotators.

For a detailed description of the HAMAP project and its current status
please consult:


Gattiker A., Michoud K., Rivoire C., Auchincloss A.H., Coudert E., Lima T.,
Kersey P., Pagni M., Sigrist C.J.A., Lachaize C., Veuthey A.-L., Bairoch A.
Automatic annotation of microbial proteomes in Swiss-Prot.
Comput. Biol. Chem. 27:49-58(2003).

     2.4   What's happening with the model organisms?

We have selected a number of organisms that are the target of genome
sequencing and/or mapping projects and for which we intend to:

   * be as complete as possible. All sequences available at a given time
     should be immediately included in Swiss-Prot. This also includes
     sequence corrections and updates;
   * provide a higher level of annotation;
   * provide cross-references to specialized database(s) that contain,
     among other data, some information about the genes that code for these
   * provide specific indexes and documents.

From our efforts to annotate human sequence entries as completely as
possible arose the HPI project (see 2.2), and the bacterial model organisms
became the focus of the HAMAP project (see 2.3). Here is the current status
of the model organisms which are not covered by these two projects:

      Organism        Database           Index file      Number of
                      cross-references                   sequences
      ------------    ----------------   --------------  ---------
      A.thaliana      None yet           arath.txt           1'952
      C.albicans      None yet           calbican.txt          264
      C.elegans       Wormpep            celegans.txt        2'291
      D.discoideum    DictyDB            dicty.txt             316
      D.melanogaster  FlyBase            fly.txt             1'764
      M.musculus      MGD                mgdtosp.txt         6'169
      S.cerevisiae    SGD                yeast.txt           4'892
      S.pombe         GeneDB_SPombe      pombe.txt           2'116

     2.5   'Nucleomorph' added to the OrGanelle (OG) line

The OG (OrGanelle) line indicates from which genome a gene for a protein
originates. Until now, defined terms in the OG line where 'Chloroplast',
'Cyanelle', 'Mitochondrion' and 'Plasmid'. The term 'Nucleomorph' has been
added, which is the residual nucleus of an algal endosymbiont that resides
inside its host cell.

     2.6   Progress in the conversion of Swiss-Prot to mixed-case

We are gradually converting Swiss-Prot entries from all 'UPPER CASE' to
'MiXeD CaSe'. With this release the RC (Reference Comment) line topic
STRAIN and the CC line topic 'CATALYTIC ACTIVITY' have been converted.

As described in section 3.2, the process of converting all of Swiss-Prot to
mixed case continues.

     2.7   Multiple RP lines

Starting with release 41, there can be more than one RP (Reference
Position) line per reference in a Swiss-Prot entry. The RP line describes
the extent of the work carried out by the authors of the reference, e.g.
the type of molecule that has been sequenced, protein characterization, PTM
characterization, protein structure analysis, variation detection, etc.

As the number of experimental results per publication has increased over
the years, the limitation of using a single RP line per reference no longer
allowed to add all the information while maintaining a consistent format.
Therefore we decided to permit multiple RP lines.



     2.8   Changes concerning cross-references (DR line)

     2.8.1   Schizosaccharomyces pombe GeneDB database

We have added cross-references to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe GeneDB
database (available at, which
contains all S. pombe known and predicted protein coding genes, pseudogenes
and tRNAs. It is hosted by the Sanger Institute.

The identifiers of the appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank identifier: GeneDB_SPombe
 Primary identifier:   GeneDB's unique identifier for a S. pombe gene.
 Secondary identifier: None; a dash '-' is stored in that field.
 Example:              DR   GeneDB_SPombe; SPAC9E9.12c; -.

     2.8.2   Genew

We have added cross-references to the Human Gene Nomenclature Database
Genew (available at,
which provides data for all human genes which have approved symbols. It is
managed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC).

The identifiers of the appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank identifier: Genew
 Primary identifier:   HGNC's unique identifier for a human gene
 Secondary identifier: HGNC's approved gene symbol.
 Example:              DR   Genew; HGNC:5217; HSD3B1.

     2.8.3   Gramene

We have added cross-references to the Gramene database, a comparative
mapping resource for grains (available at The
format for the explicit links are:

 Data bank
 identifier:           Gramene
 Primary identifier:   Unique identifier for a protein, which is identical
                       to the Swiss-Prot primary AC number of that protein.
 Secondary identifier: None; a dash '-' is stored in that field.
 Example:              DR   Gramene; Q06967; -.

     2.8.4   HAMAP

We have added cross-references to the collection of orthologous microbial
protein families, generated manually by expert curators of the HAMAP
(High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes)
project in the framework of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase. The data
is accessible at

The identifiers of the appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank
 identifier:         HAMAP
 Primary identifier: HAMAP unique identifier for a microbial protein
 Secondary           The values are either '-', 'fused', 'atypical' or
 identifier:         'atypical/fused'. The value '-' is a placeholder for
                     an empty field; the 'fused' value indicates that the
                     family rule does not cover the entire protein; the
                     value 'atypical' points out that the protein is
                     divergent in sequence or has mutated functional
                     sites, and should not be included in family datasets.
                     The value 'atypical/fused' indicates both latter
 Tertiary            Number of domains found in the protein, generally
 identifier:         '1', rarely '2' for the fusion of 2 identical
 Example:            DR   HAMAP; MF_00012; -; 1.

     2.8.5   Phosphorylation Site Database

We have added cross-references to the Phosphorylation Site Database,
PhosSite (available at, which
provides access to information from scientific literature concerning
prokaryotic proteins that undergo covalent phosphorylation on the hydroxyl
side chains of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues. The identifiers of
the appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank identifier: PhosSite
 Primary identifier:   Unique identifier for a phosphoprotein, which is
                       identical to the Swiss-Prot primary AC number of
                       that protein.
 Secondary identifier: None; a dash '-' is stored in that field.
 Example:              DR   PhosSite; P00955; -.

     2.8.6   TIGRFAMs

We have added cross-references to TIGRFAMs, a protein family database
available at The identifiers of the
appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank identifier: TIGRFAMs
 Primary identifier:   TIGRFAMs unique identifier for a protein family.
 Secondary identifier: TIGRFAMs entry name for a protein family.
 Tertiary identifier:  Number of hits found in the sequence.
 Example:              DR   TIGRFAMs; TIGR00630; uvra; 1.

     2.8.7   CarbBank

We have removed the Swiss-Prot cross-references to CarbBank.

     2.8.8   GCRDb

We have removed the Swiss-Prot cross-references to GCRDb.

     2.8.9   Mendel

We have removed the Swiss-Prot cross-references to Mendel.

     2.8.10   YEPD

We have removed the Swiss-Prot cross-references to the yeast
electrophoresis protein database (YEPD).

     2.9   Explicit links to dbSNP in FT VARIANT lines of human sequence

In human protein sequence entries we have introduced explicit links to the
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database (dbSNP) from the feature
description of FT VARIANT keys. The format of such links is:

FT   VARIANT    from     to       description (IN dbSNP:accession_number).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_number.


FT   VARIANT      65     65       T -> I (IN dbSNP:1065419).
FT                                /FTId=VAR_012009.

     2.10   Feature key 'SIMILAR' became obsolete

The feature key 'SIMILAR' was used to describe the extent of a similarity
with another protein sequence. Nowadays, most domains with similarity to
other proteins are known regions described in domain and family databases,
which are annotated in Swiss-Prot with the feature key 'DOMAIN' or 'REPEAT'
and the comment (CC) line topic 'SIMILARITY'; thus the feature key
'SIMILAR' became obsolete and will not be used again.

     2.11   Version of SP in XML format

A distribution version of Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL in XML format is being
developed. The first draft of the XML specification was released for public
review on February 21, 2002.

For more information see

Please send comments and suggestions by electronic mail to

                          3   Forthcoming changes

 Please note that these are the last release notes in this format. In
 future, forthcoming changes and recent modifications are announced to
 users also between major Swiss-Prot releases. The distinct sections of
 this document will move to the following sites:

    * 2. Description of the changes made to Swiss-Prot since the last
      release: This new
      document contains all recent modifications in Swiss-Prot including
      minor changes with no impact on the work of software developpers.
      Thus this document contains more information than announced in the
      document 'sp_soon.html' (see below).
    * 3. Forthcoming changes: All
      modifications, which have an impact on the Swiss-Prot format are
      announced in this document.
    * 4. Status of the documentation files:
    * 5. The ExPASy World-Wide Web server:
         o Explicit general and continuously updated documentation:
         o History of changes, improvements and new features:
         o Swiss-Flash, a service that reports news of databases, software
           and service developments:
    * 6. TrEMBL - a supplement to Swiss-Prot:
    * 7. FTP access to Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL: and
    * 8. ENZYME and PROSITE: Enzyme release notes (not yet) and
    * Appendix A (Release statistics):
    * Appendix B (Relationships between Swiss-Prot and some biomolecular

     3.1   Extension of the entry name format

We endeavor to assign meaningful entry names that facilitate the
identification of the proteins and the species of origin. Currently the
entry name consists of up to ten uppercase alphanumeric characters.
Swiss-Prot uses a general purpose naming convention that can be symbolized
as X_Y, where X is a mnemonic code of at most 4 alphanumeric characters
representing the protein name, the '_' sign serves as a separator, and the
Y is a mnemonic species identification code of at most 5 alphanumeric
characters representing the biological source of the protein.

We are planning to elongate the mnemonic code for the protein name from up
to 4 characters to up to 5 characters. E.g. the mnemonic code for the
meiotic recombination protein rec10 is currently 'RE10'. After the
introduction of extended entry names it could be modified to the 5-letter
code 'REC10'.

     3.2   Continuation of the conversion of Swiss-Prot to mixed-case

We will continue to convert Swiss-Prot entries from all 'UPPER CASE' to
'MiXeD CaSe'. We are proceeding in the conversion of CC (Comment) lines, we
will start to convert the GN (Gene Name) lines to mixed case, but also any
other line type might be effected.

     3.3    Reference Comment (RC) line topics may span lines

The RC (Reference Comment) line store comments relevant to the reference
cited, in currently 5 distinct topics: PLASMID, SPECIES, STRAIN, TISSUE and
TRANSPOSON. It is not always possible to list all information within one
line. Therefore we will allow multiple RC lines, in which one topic might
span over a line. Example:

RC   STRAIN=Various strains;

could become

RC   STRAIN=AZ.026, DC.005, GA.039, GA2181, IL.014, IN.018, KY.172, KY2.37,
RC   LA.013, MN.001, MNb027, MS.040, NY.016, OH.036, TN.173, TN2.38,
RC   UT.002, AL.012, AZ.180, MI.035, VA.015, and IL2.17;

     3.4   New format of comment line (CC) topics

We are continuing a major overhaul of various comment line topics. We would
like the majority of the information stored to be usable by computer
programs (while remaining human-readable). We are therefore standardizing
the format of the topics.


We are gradually restructuring the CC (comment) line topic ALTERNATIVE
PRODUCTS and introducing unique identifiers for each described isoform.
Qualifiers, which will be introduced are described in the table below:

  Topic        Description

  Event        Biological process that results in the
               production of the alternative forms (Alternative
               promoter, Alternative splicing, Alternative

               Format: Event=controlled vocabulary;
               Example: Event=Alternative splicing;

  Named        Number of isoforms listed in the topics 'Name'
  isoforms     below the topic 'Event=Alternative splicing'.

               Format: Named isoforms=number;
               Example: Named isoforms=6;

  Comment      Any comments concerning one or more isoforms;
               optional; may be longer than 1 line.

               Format: Comment=free text;
               Example: Comment=Experimental confirmation may
                                be lacking for some isoforms;

  Name         A common name for an isoform used in the
               literature or assigned by Swiss-Prot (currenty
               only available for spliced isoforms).

               Format: Name=common name;
               Example: Name=Alpha;

  Synonyms     Synonyms for an isoform as used in the
               literature; optional.

               Format: Synonyms=synonym_1[, synonym_n];
               Example: Synonyms=B, KL5;

  IsoId        Unique identifier for an isoform, consisting of
               the Swiss-Prot accession number, followed by a
               dash and an identifier for this isoform.

               Format: IsoId=acc#-isoform_number[,acc#-isoform_number];
               Example: IsoId=P05067-1;

  Sequence     Lists all FT VARSPLIC identifiers (VSP_#), which
               are needed to build the sequence for a specific
               isoform. If the accession number of the IsoId
               does not correspond to the accession number of
               the current entry, this topic contains the term

               Format: Sequence=VSP_#[,VSP_#]|Displayed|External|Not described;
               Example: Sequence=Displayed;
               Example: Sequence=VSP_000013, VSP_000014;

  Note         Notes concerning current isoform; optional;

               Format: Note=free text;
               Example: Note=Predicted;

In the case of 'Alternative initiation' the topic 'Event' can be followed
by a 'Comment' of free text. Format:

CC       Event=Alternative initiation;
CC         Comment=Optional free text with information on alternative
CC         initiation or the products retrieved from this event. In the
CC         case of alternative initiation there will be no other topics;

In the case of 'Alternative splicing' the topic 'Event' can be followed by
a 'Comment' of free text and a listing of all described isoforms. Format:

CC       Event=Alternative splicing;
CC         Comment=Optional free text with information on alternative
CC         splicing or the products retrieved from this event;
CC       Name=isoform_1; Synonyms=synonym_1[, synonym_n];
CC         IsoId=isoform_identifier_1[, isoform_identifer_n];
CC         Sequence=VSP_identifier_1 [, VSP_identifier_n];
CC         Note=Optional note concerning isoform_1;
CC       Name=isoform_n; Synonyms=synonym_1[, synonym_n];
CC         IsoId=isoform_identifier_1[, isoform_identifer_n];
CC         Sequence=VSP_identifier_1 [, VSP_identifier_n];
CC         Note=Optional note concerning isoform_n;

Example for new format of the CC lines and the corresponding FT lines for
an entry with alternative splicing:

CC       Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=9;
CC         Comment=Additional isoforms seem to exist. APP695, APP751 and
CC         APP770 are the major isoforms. The L-isoforms are referred to as
CC         appicans. Experimental confirmation may be lacking for some
CC         isoforms;
CC       Name=APP770; Synonyms=Prea4 770;
CC         IsoId=P05067-1; Sequence=Displayed;
CC       Name=APP305;
CC         IsoId=P05067-2; Sequence=VSP_000005, VSP_000006;
CC       Name=L-APP677;
CC         IsoId=P05067-3; Sequence=VSP_000002, VSP_000004, VSP_000009;
CC       Name=APP695; Synonyms=Prea4 695;
CC         IsoId=P05067-4; Sequence=VSP_000002, VSP_000004;
CC       Name=L-APP696;
CC         IsoId=P05067-5; Sequence=VSP_000002, VSP_000003, VSP_000009;
CC       Name=APP714;
CC         IsoId=P05067-6; Sequence=VSP_000002, VSP_000003;
CC       Name=L-APP733;
CC         IsoId=P05067-7; Sequence=VSP_000007, VSP_000008, VSP_000009;
CC       Name=APP751; Synonyms=Prea4 751;
CC         IsoId=P05067-8; Sequence=VSP_000007, VSP_000008;
CC       Name=L-APP752;
CC         IsoId=P05067-9; Sequence=VSP_000009;
FT   VARSPLIC    289    289       E -> V (in isoform APP695, isoform
FT                                L-APP696, isoform L-APP677 and isoform
FT                                APP714).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000002.
FT   VARSPLIC    290    345       Missing (in isoform L-APP696 and isoform
FT                                APP714).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000003.
FT   VARSPLIC    290    364       Missing (in isoform APP695 and isoform
FT                                L-APP677).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000004.
FT                                isoform APP305).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000005.
FT   VARSPLIC    306    770       Missing (in isoform APP305).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000006.
FT   VARSPLIC    345    345       M -> I (in isoform L-APP733 and isoform
FT                                APP751).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000007.
FT   VARSPLIC    346    364       Missing (in isoform L-APP733 and isoform
FT                                APP751).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000008.
FT   VARSPLIC    637    654       Missing (in isoform L-APP677, isoform
FT                                L-APP696, isoform L-APP733 and isoform
FT                                L-APP752).
FT                                /FTId=VSP_000009.

     3.4.2   PATHWAY

We are gradually structuring the comment line topic PATHWAY. To describe
the biochemical pathway in which the protein is involved, we use the
following format:

CC   -!- PATHWAY: biochemical pathway; nth step.[ Comment.]


CC   -!- PATHWAY: Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis; first step.

     3.4.3   COFACTOR

The comment line topic COFACTOR is gradually being modified to the
following format:

CC   -!- COFACTOR: cofactor1[, cofactor2 and cofactor3].[ Comment.]


CC   -!- COFACTOR: Magnesium.
CC   -!- COFACTOR: Copper, Manganese and Nickel.

     3.5   Changes concerning cross-references (DR line)

We will add cross-references to the Gene Ontology (GO) database (available
at, which provides controlled vocabularies
for the description of the molecular function, biological process and
cellular component of gene products.

The identifiers of the appropriate DR line are:

 Data bank identifier: GO
 Primary identifier:   GO's unique identifier for a GO term.
 Secondary identifier: A 1-letter abbreviation for one of the 3 ontology
                       aspects, separated from the GO term by a column. If
                       the term is longer than 45 characters, the first 43
                       characters are indicated followed by 3 dots ('...').
                       The abbreviations for the 3 distinct aspects of the
                       ontology are P (biological Process), F (molecular
                       Function) and C (cellular Component).
 Tertiary identifier:  3-character GO evidence code.
 Example:              DR   GO; GO:0003677; F:DNA binding; TAS.

     3.6   Modifications concerning the feature table (FT line)

We are investigating a major effort in the annotation of posttranslational
modifications, which has an effect on various feature keys and feature
descriptions. Major format changes are described below.

     3.6.1   New feature key 'CROSSLNK'

The feature key 'CROSSLNK' will be introduced to describe bonds between
amino acids, which are formed posttranslationally within a peptide or
between peptides, such as isopeptidic bonds, carbon-carbon linkages,
carbon-nitrogen linkages and backbone condensations. It will also include
the description of tioether bonds and thiolester bonds and thus the feature
keys 'THIOETH' and 'THIOLEST' will be removed.

Note: Disulfide bonds occur so often in proteins, that we will keep the
special feature key 'DISULFID' to describe this kind of linkage.


FT   CROSSLNK    from     to      Description.

     3.6.2   Removal of the feature key 'THIOETH'

See section 3.6.1.

     3.6.3   Removal of the feature key 'THIOLEST'

See section 3.6.1.

                   4   Status of the documentation files

Swiss-Prot is distributed with a large number of documentation files. Some
of these files have been available for a long time (the user manual,
release notes, the various indexes for authors, citations, keywords, etc.),
but many have been created recently and we are continuously adding new
files, and updating and modifying existing files. Please note that the
header in many documentation files has changed. The following table lists
all the documents that are currently available.

See also section 7.3 for information on how to access updated versions of
all documents between major releases.

 userman.txt    User manual
 relnotes.txt   Release notes for the current release (41)
 shortdes.txt   Short description of entries in Swiss-Prot

 jourlist.txt   List of cited journals
 keywlist.txt   List of keywords
 plasmid.txt    List of plasmids
 speclist.txt   List of organism (species) identification codes
 tisslist.txt   List of tissues
 experts.txt    List of on-line experts for PROSITE and Swiss-Prot
 dbxref.txt     List of databases cross-referenced in Swiss-Prot
 submit.txt     Submission of sequence data to Swiss-Prot

 acindex.txt    Accession number index
 autindex.txt   Author index
 citindex.txt   Citation index
 keyindex.txt   Keyword index
 speindex.txt   Species index
 deleteac.txt   Deleted accession number index
 7tmrlist.txt   List of 7-transmembrane G-linked receptor entries
 aatrnasy.txt   List of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
 allergen.txt   Nomenclature and index of allergen sequences
 annbioch.txt   Swiss-Prot annotation: how is biochemical information
                assigned to sequence entries
 arath.txt      Index of Arabidopsis thaliana entries and their
                corresponding gene designations [see 2]
 bacsu.txt      Index of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 chromosomal entries
                and their corresponding SubtiList cross-references [see 1]
 bloodgrp.txt   Blood group antigen proteins
 bucai.txt      Index of Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum)
                entries [see 2]
 bucap.txt      Index of Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum)
                entries[see 2]
 calbican.txt   Index of Candida albicans entries and their corresponding
                gene designations
 cdlist.txt     CD nomenclature for surface proteins of human leucocytes
                Index of Caenorhabditis elegans entries and their
 celegans.txt   corresponding gene designations and WormPep
                Index of Dictyostelium discoideum entries and their
 dicty.txt      corresponding gene designations and DictyDB
 ec2dtosp.txt   Index of Escherichia coli Gene-protein database
                (ECO2DBASE) entries referenced in Swiss-Prot
 ecoli.txt      Index of Escherichia coli strain K12 chromosomal entries
                and their corresponding EcoGene cross-references
 embltosp.txt   Index of EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database entries
                referenced in Swiss-Prot
 extradom.txt   Nomenclature of extracellular domains
 fly.txt        Index of Drosophila entries and their corresponding
                FlyBase cross-references
 glycosid.txt   Classification of glycosyl hydrolase families and index of
                glycosyl hydrolase entries in Swiss-Prot
 haein.txt      Index of Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd chromosomal
                entries [see 1]
 helpy.txt      Index of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 chromosomal
                entries [see 1]
 hoxlist.txt    Vertebrate homeotic Hox proteins: nomenclature and index
 humchr01.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 1
 humchr02.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 2
 humchr03.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 3
 humchr04.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 4
 humchr05.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 5
 humchr06.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 6
 humchr07.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 7
 humchr08.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 8
 humchr09.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 9
 humchr10.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 10
 humchr11.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 11
 humchr12.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 12
 humchr13.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 13
 humchr14.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 14
 humchr15.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 15
 humchr16.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 16
 humchr17.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 17
 humchr18.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 18
 humchr19.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 19
 humchr20.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 20
 humchr21.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 21
 humchr22.txt   Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome 22
 humchrx.txt    Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome X
 humchry.txt    Index of proteins encoded on human chromosome Y
 humpvar.txt    Index of human proteins with sequence variants
 initfact.txt   List and index of translation initiation factors
 intein.txt     Index of intein-containing entries referenced in
 metallo.txt    Classification of metallothioneins and index of the
                entries in Swiss-Prot
 metja.txt      Index of Methanococcus jannaschii entries [see 1]
 mgdtosp.txt    Index of MGD entries referenced in Swiss-Prot
 mimtosp.txt    Index of MIM entries referenced in Swiss-Prot
 mycge.txt      Index of Mycoplasma genitalium strain G-37 chromosomal
                entries [see 1]
 mycpn.txt      Index of Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain M129 chromosomal
                entries [see 2]
 ngr234.txt     Table of predicted proteins in Rhizobium plasmid pNGR234a
 nomlist.txt    List of nomenclature related references for proteins
 pdbtosp.txt    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries referenced in
 peptidas.txt   Classification of peptidase families and index of
                peptidase entries in Swiss-Prot
 plastid.txt    List of chloroplast and cyanelle encoded proteins
 pombe.txt      Index of Schizosaccharomyces pombe entries and their
                corresponding gene designations
 restric.txt    List of restriction enzyme and methylase entries
 ribosomp.txt   Index of ribosomal proteins classified by families on the
                basis of sequence similarities
 ricpr.txt      Index of Rickettsia prowazekii strain Madrid E entries
                [see 1]
 salty.txt      Index of Salmonella typhimurium strain LT2 chromosomal
                entries and their corresponding StyGene cross-references
 syny3.txt      Index of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 entries [see 1]
 upflist.txt    List of UPF (Uncharacterized Protein Families) and index
                of members
 yeast.txt      Index of Saccharomyces cerevisiae entries in Swiss-Prot
                and their corresponding gene designations
 yeast1.txt     Yeast chromosome I entries
 yeast2.txt     Yeast chromosome II entries
 yeast3.txt     Yeast chromosome III entries
 yeast5.txt     Yeast chromosome V entries
 yeast6.txt     Yeast chromosome VI entries
 yeast7.txt     Yeast chromosome VII entries
 yeast8.txt     Yeast chromosome VIII entries
 yeast9.txt     Yeast chromosome IX entries
 yeast10.txt    Yeast chromosome X entries
 yeast11.txt    Yeast chromosome XI entries
 yeast13.txt    Yeast chromosome XIII entries
 yeast14.txt    Yeast chromosome XIV entries


 1)  The filenames for indexes of microbe-specific entries have been
     renamed; the filename is now composed of the 5-letter code used for
     the species in the Swiss-Prot entry name and the extension 'txt'.
     This modification concerns the following files:

     'bacsu.txt' (formerly: 'subtilis.txt'), 'haein.txt' (formerly:
     'haeinflu.txt'), 'helpy.txt' (formerly: 'hpylori.txt'), 'metja.txt'
     (formerly: 'mjannasc.txt'), 'mycge.txt' (formerly: 'mgenital.txt'),
     'ricpr.txt' (formerly: 'rprowaze.txt'), 'syny3.txt' (formerly:

 2)  The files 'arath.txt', 'bucai.txt', 'bucap.txt' and 'mycpn.txt' are
     new documents introduced since release 40.

We have continued to include in some Swiss-Prot documentation files the
references to Web sites relevant to the subject under consideration. There
are now 89 documents that include such links.

      5   New features of the ExPASy World-Wide Web server related to

Explicit general and continuously updated documentation about the ExPASy
server is available at

ExPASy is constantly modified and improved. If you wish to be informed on
the changes made to the server you can either:

   * Read the document 'History of changes, improvements and new features'
     which is available at the address:
   * Subscribe to Swiss-Flash, a service that reports news of databases,
     software and service developments. By subscribing to this service, you
     will automatically get Swiss-Flash bulletins by electronic mail. To
     subscribe, use the address:

Among all the improvements and the new features introduced since the last
Swiss-Prot release, here are those that we believe are specifically useful
to Swiss-Prot users:

  1. The NiceProt view of Swiss-Prot has been further improved: access to
     documentation has been facilitated by adding "mouse-over" hypertext
     links from various sections in NiceProt to the corresponding
     information in the user manual. Those hypertext links, which give
     access to documentation rather than the data related to the protein
     entry, are visually different from the ordinary hyperlinks. While they
     are not immediately recognizable as such, the user can see that they
     are clickable by moving the mouse pointer over the section headings
     such as "References" or "Keywords". A short description of the linked
     information appears at the bottom of the web browser, and when
     clicked, a small additional window is opened with related information
     extracted from the user manual.

     Similarly, in the "Cross-references" section, the names of the
     databases to which an entry is cross-referenced are linked to the
     corresponding sections in the document dbxref.txt (List of databases
     cross-referenced in Swiss-Prot).

  2. Implicit links have been added to the resources AraC-XylS, Ensembl and
     ModBase. We have removed the implicit links to DOMO, which is no
     longer maintained.

     For more details on Swiss-Prot cross-references, implicit and explicit
     links, you can read:

     Gasteiger E., Jung E., Bairoch A.
     Swiss-Prot: connecting biological knowledge via a protein database.
     Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 3:47-55(2001)

  3. A few improvements have been applied to the pages describing the Human
     Proteomics Initiative (HPI). For each human chromosome a link is
     provided to the corresponding index of Swiss-Prot entries, to relevant
     information in the EBI Proteome database, in Ensembl, in the Human
     Genome Resources at NCBI and in euGenes at Indiana University.

     The HPI status report has been modified to include, for each of the
     counted items (e.g. splice variants, variants, references) not only
     the absolute number, but also the maximal and average number of
     occurrences per entry, and the number of entries concerned by the
     counted item.

                   6 TrEMBL - a supplement to Swiss-Prot

The ongoing genome sequencing and mapping projects have dramatically
increased the number of protein sequences to be incorporated into
Swiss-Prot. Since we do not want to dilute the quality standards of
Swiss-Prot by incorporating sequences into the database without proper
sequence analysis and annotation, we cannot speed up the incorporation of
new incoming data indefinitely. But as we also want to make the sequences
available as quickly as possible, we introduced in 1995 a computer
annotated supplement to Swiss-Prot. This supplement consists of entries in
Swiss-Prot-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences
(CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except those already
included in Swiss-Prot.

This supplement is named TrEMBL (Translation from EMBL). It can be
considered as a preliminary section of Swiss-Prot. This Swiss-Prot release
is supplemented by TrEMBL release 21.

TrEMBL is available by FTP from the EBI and ExPASy servers in the directory
'/databases/trembl'. It can be queried on WWW by the EBI and ExPASy SRS
servers. It is distributed with its own set of release notes.

                  7   FTP access to Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL

     7.1   Generalities

Swiss-Prot is available for download on the following anonymous FTP

 Organization Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB)
 Directory    /databases/swiss-prot/

 Organization European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI)
 Directory    /pub/databases/swissprot/

     7.2   Non-redundant database

On the ExPASy and EBI FTP servers we distribute files that make up a
non-redundant and complete protein sequence database consisting of three

1) Swiss-Prot
3) New entries to be integrated later into TrEMBL (hereafter known as

Every week three files are completely rebuilt. These files are named:
sprot.dat.gz, trembl.dat.gz and trembl_new.dat.gz. As indicated by their '.
gz' extension, these are gzip-compressed files which, when decompressed,
produce ASCII files in Swiss-Prot format.

Three other files are also available (sprot.fas.gz, trembl.fas.gz and
trembl_new.fas.gz) which are compressed 'fasta' format sequence files
useful for building the databases used by FASTA, BLAST and other sequence
similarity search programs. Please do not use these files for any other
purpose, as you will lose all annotations by using this stripped-down

The files for the non-redundant database are stored in the directory
'/databases/sp_tr_nrdb' on the ExPASy FTP server ( and in
the directory '/pub/databases/sp_tr_nrdb' on the EBI FTP server

Additional notes:

   * The Swiss-Prot file continuously grows as new annotated sequences are

   * The TrEMBL file decreases in size as sequences are moved out of that
     section after being annotated and moved into Swiss-Prot. Four times a
     year a new release of TrEMBL is built at EBI, at this point the TrEMBL
     file increases in size as it then includes all of the new data (see
     next section) that has accumulated since the last release.

   * The TrEMBL_New file starts as a very small file and grows in size
     until a new release of TrEMBL is available.

   * Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL share the same system of accession numbers.
     Therefore you will not find any primary accession number duplicated
     between the two sections. A TrEMBL entry (and its associated accession
     number(s)) can either move to Swiss-Prot as a new entry or be merged
     with an existing Swiss-Prot entry. In the latter case, the accession
     number(s) of that TrEMBL entry are added to that of the Swiss-Prot

   * TrEMBL_New does not have real accession numbers. However it was
     necessary to have an 'AC' line so as to be able to use it with
     different software products. This AC line contains a temporary
     identifier which consists of the protein_ID (protein sequence
     identifier) of the coding sequence in the parent nucleotide sequence.

   * TrEMBL_New is quite messy! You will of course find new sequence
     entries but you will also encounter sequences that are going to be
     used to update existing TrEMBL or Swiss-Prot entries. None of the
     "cleaning" steps that are applied to produce a TrEMBL release are run
     on TrEMBL_New nor are any of the computer-annotation software tools
     that are used to enhance the information content of TrEMBL. TrEMBL_New
     is provided only so that users can be sure not to miss any important
     new sequences when they run similarity searches.

   * While these three files allow you to build what we call a
     'non-redundant' database, it must be noted that this is not completely
     a true statement. Without going into a long explanation we can say
     that this is currently the best attempt in providing a complete
     selection of protein sequence entries while trying to eliminate
     redundancies. While Swiss-Prot is completely (well 99.994% !)
     non-redundant, TrEMBL is far from being non-redundant and the addition
     of Swiss-Prot + TrEMBL is even less so.

   * To describe to your users the version of the non-redundant database
     that you are providing them with, you should use a statement of the

          Swiss-Prot release 41.x of xx-yyy-2003;
          TrEMBL release 23.x of xx-yyy-2003;
          TrEMBL_New of xx-yyy-2003.

     7.3   Weekly updates of Swiss-Prot documents

Whilst the ExPASy FTP server so far only allowed FTP access to the
Swiss-Prot documents and indexes in their versions at the time of the last
full release, all documents are now updated with every weekly release of
Swiss-Prot. They are available for FTP download from the directory

     7.4   Weekly updates of Swiss-Prot

Weekly updates of Swiss-Prot are available by anonymous FTP. Three files
are generated at each update:

 new_seq.dat Contains all the new entries since the last full

 upd_seq.dat Contains the entries for which the sequence data has
             been updated since the last release;

 upd_ann.dat Contains the entries for which one or more annotation
             fields have been updated since the last release.

Important notes

   * Although we try to follow a regular schedule, we do not promise to
     update these files every week. In most cases two weeks may elapse
     between two updates.
   * Instead of using the above files, you can, every week, download an
     updated copy of the Swiss-Prot database. This file is available in the
     directory containing the non-redundant database (see section 7.2).

                          8   ENZYME and PROSITE

     8.1   The ENZYME nomenclature database

Release 30.0 of the ENZYME nomenclature database is distributed with
release 41 of Swiss-Prot. ENZYME release 30.0 contains information relative
to 4'136 enzymes. In this release, we have added a significant number of
new entries and we also updated many entries.

     8.2   The PROSITE database

PROSITE now comes with its own release notes.

                          9   We need your help!

We welcome feedback from our users. We would especially appreciate your
notifying us if you find that sequences belonging to your field of
expertise are missing from the database. We also would like to be notified
about annotations to be updated, if, for example, the function of a protein
has been clarified or if new information about post-translational
modifications has become available. To facilitate this feedback we offer,
on the ExPASy WWW server, a form that allows the submission of updates
and/or corrections to Swiss-Prot:

It is also possible, from any entry in Swiss-Prot displayed by the ExPASy
server, to submit updates and/or corrections for that particular entry.
Finally, you can also send your comments by electronic mail to the address:

Note that all update requests are assigned a unique identifier of the form
UR-Xnnnn (example: UR-A0123). This identifier is used internally by the
Swiss-Prot staff at SIB and EBI to track requests and is also used in
e-mail exchanges with the persons who have submitted a request.

                       APPENDIX A:   Some statistics

     A.1   Amino acid composition

     A.1.1   Composition in percent for the complete database

   Ala (A) 7.72   Gln (Q) 3.92   Leu (L) 9.56   Ser (S) 6.98
   Arg (R) 5.24   Glu (E) 6.54   Lys (K) 5.96   Thr (T) 5.51
   Asn (N) 4.28   Gly (G) 6.90   Met (M) 2.36   Trp (W) 1.18
   Asp (D) 5.27   His (H) 2.26   Phe (F) 4.06   Tyr (Y) 3.13
   Cys (C) 1.60   Ile (I) 5.88   Pro (P) 4.88   Val (V) 6.66

   Asx (B) 0.000  Glx (Z) 0.000  Xaa (X) 0.01

     A.1.2   Classification of the amino acids by their frequency

   Leu, Ala, Ser, Gly, Val, Glu, Lys, Ile, Thr, Asp, Arg, Pro, Asn, Phe,
   Gln, Tyr, Met, His, Cys, Trp

     A.2   Taxonomic origin

Total number of species represented in this release of Swiss-Prot: 7'778
The first twenty species represent 51'656 sequences: 42.1% of the total
number of entries.

     A.2.1   Table of the frequency of occurrence of species

        Species represented 1x: 3679
                            2x: 1206
                            3x:  619
                            4x:  403
                            5x:  273
                            6x:  251
                            7x:  192
                            8x:  146
                            9x:  120
                           10x:   66
                       11- 20x:  331
                       21- 50x:  250
                       51-100x:   84
                         >100x:  158

     A.2.2   Table of the most represented species

  ------  ---------  --------------------------------------------
  Number  Frequency  Species
  ------  ---------  --------------------------------------------
       1       9172  Homo sapiens (Human)
       2       6169  Mus musculus (Mouse)
       3       4892  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast)
       4       4832  Escherichia coli
       5       3442  Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
       6       2402  Bacillus subtilis
       7       2291  Caenorhabditis elegans
       8       2116  Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast)
       9       1952  Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
      10       1773  Haemophilus influenzae
      11       1764  Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
      12       1529  Methanococcus jannaschii
      13       1485  Escherichia coli O157:H7
      14       1389  Bos taurus (Bovine)
      15       1371  Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      16       1240  Salmonella typhimurium
      17       1062  Gallus gallus (Chicken)
      18        942  Shigella flexneri
      19        919  Synechocystis sp. (strain PCC 6803)
      20        914  Escherichia coli O6
      21        876  Archaeoglobus fulgidus
      22        839  Pseudomonas aeruginosa
      23        838  Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
      24        822  Sus scrofa (Pig)
      25        771  Salmonella typhi
      26        716  Aquifex aeolicus
      27        704  Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit)
      28        687  Mycoplasma pneumoniae
      29        670  Rhizobium meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti)
      30        609  Vibrio cholerae
      31        599  Treponema pallidum
      32        581  Mycobacterium leprae
      33        572  Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Acyrthosiphon pisum)
      34        560  Buchnera aphidicola (subsp. Schizaphis graminum)
      35        536  Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori)
      36        535  Rickettsia prowazekii
      37        524  Yersinia pestis
      38        519  Helicobacter pylori J99 (Campylobacter pylori J99)
      39        519  Streptomyces coelicolor
      40        494  Bacillus halodurans
      41        491  Zea mays (Maize)
      42        491  Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum
      43        486  Mycoplasma genitalium
      44        480  Pasteurella multocida
      45        454  Anabaena sp. (strain PCC 7120)
      46        432  Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis) (Streptococcus lactis)
      47        419  Thermotoga maritima
      48        416  Oryza sativa (Rice)
      49        405  Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease spirochete)
      50        404  Chlamydia trachomatis
      51        403  Rhizobium sp. (strain NGR234)
      52        393  Canis familiaris (Dog)
      53        391  Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae)
      54        390  Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup B)
      55        386  Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup A)
      56        381  Chlamydia muridarum
      57        366  Caulobacter crescentus
      58        365  Pyrococcus horikoshii
      59        359  Listeria monocytogenes
      60        359  Clostridium acetobutylicum
      61        357  Pyrococcus abyssi
      62        354  Ralstonia solanacearum (Pseudomonas solanacearum)
      63        352  Listeria innocua
      64        352  Rhizobium loti (Mesorhizobium loti)
      65        350  Streptococcus pneumoniae
      66        346  Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain C58 / ATCC 33970)
      67        341  Nicotiana tabacum (Common tobacco)
      68        337  Xylella fastidiosa
      69        335  Deinococcus radiodurans
      70        332  Ovis aries (Sheep)
      71        326  Xanthomonas campestris (pv. campestris)
      72        325  Halobacterium sp. (strain NRC-1)
      73        320  Staphylococcus aureus (strain N315)
      74        320  Campylobacter jejuni
      75        317  Staphylococcus aureus (strain Mu50 / ATCC 700699)
      76        316  Dictyostelium discoideum (Slime mold)
      77        311  Clostridium perfringens
      78        299  Sulfolobus solfataricus
      79        297  Staphylococcus aureus (strain MW2)
      80        290  Corynebacterium glutamicum (Brevibacterium flavum)
      81        288  Pisum sativum (Garden pea)
      82        287  Xanthomonas axonopodis (pv. citri)
      83        285  Streptococcus pyogenes
      84        283  Aeropyrum pernix
      85        278  Pyrococcus furiosus
      86        278  Staphylococcus aureus
      87        269  Brucella melitensis
      88        268  Bacteriophage T4
      89        266  Neurospora crassa
      90        265  Triticum aestivum (Wheat)
      91        264  Candida albicans (Yeast)
      92        261  Rickettsia conorii
      93        258  Hordeum vulgare (Barley)
      94        254  Vaccinia virus (strain Copenhagen)
      95        251  Glycine max (Soybean)
      96        250  Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato)
      97        248  Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rhodopseudomonas capsulata)
      98        247  Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis
      99        246  Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
     100        244  Pseudomonas putida

     A.2.3   Taxonomic distribution of the sequences

   Kingdom       Sequences (% of the database)
    Archaea            7119 (  6%)
    Bacteria          46344 ( 38%)
    Eukaryota         60623 ( 49%)
    Viruses            8478 (  7%)

   Within Eukaryota:

    Category            sequences (% of Eukaryota) (% of the complete database)
     Human                   9172 ( 15%)           (  7%)
     Other Mammalia         16041 ( 26%)           ( 13%)
     Other Vertebrata        5806 ( 10%)           (  5%)
     Viridiplantae           9581 ( 16%)           (  8%)
     Fungi                   9337 ( 15%)           (  8%)
     Insecta                 3352 (  6%)           (  3%)
     Nematoda                2504 (  4%)           (  2%)
     Other                   4830 (  8%)           (  4%)

     A.3   Sequence size

     A.3.1   Repartition of the sequences by size (excluding fragments)

               From   To  Number             From   To   Number
                  1-  50    2283             1001-1100     1127
                 51- 100    8420             1101-1200      796
                101- 150   12542             1201-1300      550
                151- 200   11267             1301-1400      379
                201- 250   11387             1401-1500      305
                251- 300   10019             1501-1600      213
                301- 350   10039             1601-1700      166
                351- 400    9804             1701-1800      118
                401- 450    7435             1801-1900      128
                451- 500    6547             1901-2000      106
                501- 550    5067             2001-2100       59
                551- 600    3400             2101-2200       96
                601- 650    2753             2201-2300       99
                651- 700    2015             2301-2400       57
                701- 750    1766             2401-2500       56
                751- 800    1474             >2500          326
                801- 850    1101
                851- 900    1142
                901- 950     817
                951-1000     704

     A.3.2   Longest and shortest sequences

   The shortest sequence is  GRWM_HUMAN (P24272) :     3 amino acids.
   The longest sequence is   NEBU_HUMAN (P20929) :  6669 amino acids.

     A.4   Journal citations

Note: the following citation statistics reflect the number of distinct
journal citations.

Total number of journals cited in this release of Swiss-Prot: 1'316

     A.4.1   Table of the frequency of journal citations

        Journals cited 1x:  496
                       2x:  167
                       3x:   84
                       4x:   61
                       5x:   46
                       6x:   47
                       7x:   26
                       8x:   25
                       9x:   22
                      10x:   11
                  11- 20x:   98
                  21- 50x:   98
                  51-100x:   39
                    >100x:   96

     A.4.2   List of the most cited journals in Swiss-Prot

   Nb    Citations   Journal name
   --    ---------   -------------------------------------------------------------
    1         9138   Journal of Biological Chemistry
    2         5013   Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.
    3         3631   Nucleic Acids Research
    4         3612   Journal of Bacteriology
    5         3381   Gene
    6         2663   FEBS Letters
    7         2598   Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
    8         2429   European Journal of Biochemistry
    9         2383   Biochemistry
   10         2171   The EMBO Journal
   11         2045   Nature
   12         2024   Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
   13         1821   Journal of Molecular Biology
   14         1752   Genomics
   15         1579   Cell
   16         1542   Molecular and Cellular Biology
   17         1243   Biochemical Journal
   18         1146   Science
   19         1123   Plant Molecular Biology
   20         1117   Molecular and General Genetics
   21         1068   Molecular Microbiology
   22          855   Journal of Biochemistry
   23          830   Virology
   24          748   Human Molecular Genetics
   25          693   Journal of Cell Biology
   26          645   Nature Genetics
   27          597   Journal of Virology
   28          588   Plant Physiology
   29          582   Human Mutation
   30          579   Genes and Development
   31          550   Oncogene
   32          538   The American Journal of Human Genetics
   33          530   Infection and Immunity
   34          529   Yeast
   35          516   Journal of Immunology
   36          494   Journal of General Virology
   37          469   Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
   38          454   Structure
   39          446   FEMS Microbiology Letters
   40          433   Microbiology
   41          394   Development
   42          379   Human Genetics
   43          376   Current Genetics
   44          376   Nature Structural Biology
   45          347   Genetics
   46          343   Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
   47          335   Blood
   48          317   Applied and Environmental Microbiology
   49          313   Journal of Clinical Investigation
   50          299   Molecular Endocrinology
   51          283   DNA and Cell Biology
   52          282   Protein Science
   53          281   Journal of Molecular Evolution
   54          276   Developmental Biology
   55          276   Mammalian Genome
   56          271   Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler
   57          251   Cancer Research
   58          248   Journal of Experimental Medicine
   59          246   Neuron
   60          241   Immunogenetics
   61          240   Mechanisms of Development
   62          229   Journal of General Microbiology
   63          228   Endocrinology
   64          221   DNA Sequence
   65          217   Acta Crystallographica, Section D
   66          213   Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie
   67          209   Molecular Biology of the Cell
   68          207   The Plant Cell
   69          203   Journal of Cell Science
   70          191   Molecular Biology and Evolution
   71          190   Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research
   72          187   The Plant Journal
   73          183   Journal of Neurochemistry
   74          180   Journal of Neuroscience
   75          160   Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
   76          158   Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics
   77          156   DNA
   78          154   Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
   79          152   The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
   80          145   Toxicon
   81          144   Molecular Pharmacology
   82          143   Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
   83          140   American Journal of Physiology
   84          131   Biochimie
   85          127   Bioorganicheskaia Khimiia
   86          125   Virus Research
   87          125   Proteins
   88          122   DNA Research
   89          121   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions
   90          119   Hemoglobin
   91          116   Peptides
   92          114   Agricultural and Biological Chemistry
   93          112   Current Biology
   94          111   Journal of Investigative Dermatology
   95          110   Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
   96          106   Genome Research

     A.5   Statistics for some line types

The following table summarizes the total number of some Swiss-Prot lines,
as well as the number of entries with at least one such line, and the
frequency of the lines.

                                   Total    Number of  Average
Line type / subtype                number   entries    per entry
---------------------------------  -------- ---------  ---------

References (RL)                     232571              1.90
   Journal                          195556    111991    1.60
   Submitted to EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ    34500     27873    0.28
   Unpublished observations            536       532   <0.01
   Submitted to Swiss-Prot             464       462   <0.01
   Plant Gene Register                 463       453   <0.01
   Book citation                       460       450   <0.01
   Thesis                              190       188   <0.01
   Submitted to other databases        190       189   <0.01
   Unpublished results                 123       121   <0.01
   Patent                               87        86   <0.01
   Worm Breeder's Gazette                2         2   <0.01

Comments (CC)                       405433              3.31
   SIMILARITY                       117866    103489    0.96
   FUNCTION                          77092     75796    0.63
   SUBCELLULAR LOCATION              55038     55038    0.45
   CATALYTIC ACTIVITY                39528     37138    0.32
   SUBUNIT                           33846     33846    0.28
   PATHWAY                           17449     16966    0.14
   TISSUE SPECIFICITY                13626     13626    0.11
   COFACTOR                          12141     12141    0.10
   MISCELLANEOUS                      7816      7190    0.06
   PTM                                7140      6571    0.06
   ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS               3946      3946    0.03
   INDUCTION                          3558      3558    0.03
   DOMAIN                             3535      3241    0.03
   DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE                3362      3362    0.03
   CAUTION                            3342      3172    0.03
   DISEASE                            2244      1868    0.02
   ENZYME REGULATION                  1753      1753    0.01
   MASS SPECTROMETRY                   893       810    0.01
   DATABASE                            818       751    0.01
   POLYMORPHISM                        343       334   <0.01
   BIOTECHNOLOGY                        50        50   <0.01
   PHARMACEUTICAL                       47        47   <0.01

Features (FT)                       655938              5.35
   DOMAIN                            95401     28727    0.78
   TRANSMEM                          77067     16988    0.63
   CONFLICT                          47337     16661    0.39
   CARBOHYD                          45507     11138    0.37
   DISULFID                          41846     10872    0.34
   TURN                              39177      2956    0.32
   METAL                             36827     10004    0.30
   STRAND                            36304      2644    0.30
   HELIX                             27742      2845    0.23
   ACT_SITE                          24322     15216    0.20
   CHAIN                             23456     19176    0.19
   VARIANT                           23307      4423    0.19
   REPEAT                            22336      3704    0.18
   NP_BIND                           15500     10893    0.13
   SIGNAL                            14828     14826    0.12
   MOD_RES                           13336      7528    0.11
   NON_TER                           10321      7875    0.08
   BINDING                            8145      6285    0.07
   ZN_FING                            7821      2770    0.06
   VARSPLIC                           6951      3249    0.06
   SITE                               6265      4319    0.05
   INIT_MET                           5574      5545    0.05
   PROPEP                             4686      4026    0.04
   MUTAGEN                            4273      1337    0.03
   DNA_BIND                           4193      3949    0.03
   CA_BIND                            4049      1149    0.03
   LIPID                              2946      2395    0.02
   TRANSIT                            2582      2562    0.02
   PEPTIDE                            2517      1001    0.02
   NON_CONS                            804       411    0.01
   UNSURE                              290       123   <0.01
   SE_CYS                              111        73   <0.01
   THIOETH                              94        32   <0.01
   THIOLEST                             23        23   <0.01

Cross-references (DR)               999237              8.15
   EMBL                             230657    116257    1.88
   InterPro                         195677    104236    1.60
   Pfam                             133012     99557    1.09
   PROSITE                          105218     66696    0.86
   PIR                               47040     35736    0.38
   PRINTS                            39413     34822    0.32
   SMART                             38729     29473    0.32
   HSSP                              38069     38069    0.31
   TIGRFAMs                          31394     29063    0.26
   ProDom                            30120     28820    0.25
   HAMAP                             23868     23778    0.19
   PDB                               11737      3547    0.10
   TIGR                              11065     11020    0.09
   MIM                                8171      7086    0.07
   Genew                              7836      7788    0.06
   MGD                                5820      5805    0.05
   SGD                                4936      4882    0.04
   EcoGene                            4228      4226    0.03
   MEROPS                             3316      3222    0.03
   TRANSFAC                           2464      2214    0.02
   WormPep                            2413      2239    0.02
   SubtiList                          2362      2361    0.02
   FlyBase                            2236      2173    0.02
   GeneDB_SPombe                      2131      2101    0.02
   TubercuList                        1400      1363    0.01
   StyGene                            1196      1193    0.01
   SWISS-2DPAGE                        810       809    0.01
   ListiList                           712       658    0.01
   Leproma                             585       581   <0.01
   Gramene                             411       411   <0.01
   MaizeDB                             405       401   <0.01
   HIV                                 370       354   <0.01
   REBASE                              358       353   <0.01
   ECO2DBASE                           351       299   <0.01
   DictyDb                             319       316   <0.01
   GlycoSuiteDB                        259       259   <0.01
   ZFIN                                225       225   <0.01
   PHCI-2DPAGE                         211       211   <0.01
   MypuList                            131       131   <0.01
   Aarhus/Ghent-2DPAGE                 128        98   <0.01
   Siena-2DPAGE                        104       104   <0.01
   HSC-2DPAGE                           85        85   <0.01
   PhosSite                             53        53   <0.01
   COMPLUYEAST-2DPAGE                   50        50   <0.01
   PMMA-2DPAGE                          47        47   <0.01
   Maize-2DPAGE                         39        39   <0.01
   SagaList                             25        25   <0.01
   ANU-2DPAGE                           15        15   <0.01

     A.6   Miscellaneous statistics

Total number of distinct authors cited in Swiss-Prot: 164'410

Total number of chloroplast-encoded sequences: 3'131
Total number of mitochondrial-encoded sequences: 2'385
Total number of cyanelle-encoded sequences: 145
Total number of plasmid-encoded sequences: 2'624

Number of additional sequences encoded in splice variants : 5'661

--End of document--