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Definition

A metabolic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased blood manganese levels, neurodegeneration, and rapidly progressive parkinsonism and dystonia. Affected individuals present with loss of developmental milestones, progressive dystonia and bulbar dysfunction in infancy or early childhood. Towards the end of the first decade, they manifest severe generalized pharmacoresistant dystonia, spasticity, limb contractures and scoliosis, and loss of independent ambulation. Cognition may be impaired, but is better preserved than motor function.

Acronym

HMNDYT2

Keywords

Neurodegeneration
Parkinsonism
Dystonia

 
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