Interaction of a neuron-specific protein containing PDZ domains with Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein.
A novel protein, human X11-like (human X11L), contains a phosphotyrosine interaction (PI) domain and two PDZ domains and displays 55.2% amino acid homology with the human X11 (human X11). The PI domain of human X11L interacts with a sequence containing the NPXY motif found in the cytoplasmic domain of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. A construct lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain, which comprises two PDZ domains (N + PI), enhances PI binding to APP, whereas another construct lacking an amino-terminal domain relative to PI domain (PI + C) suppresses PI binding to APP. Overexpression of full-length human X11L (N + PI + C) in cells that express APP695 stably decreased the secretion of Abeta40 but not that of Abeta42. However, overexpression of the PI domain alone and the N + PI construct in cells did not affect the secretion of Abeta despite their ability to bind to the cytoplasmic domain of Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. These observations suggest that the amino-terminal domain regulates PI binding to APP and that the carboxyl-terminal domain containing PDZ motifs is essential to modulate APP processing. Because expression of the human X11L gene is specific to brain, the present observations should contribute to shedding light on the molecular mechanism of APP processing in Alzheimer's disease.