His1069Gln and six novel Wilson disease mutations: analysis of relevance for early diagnosis and phenotype.
In the present study we examined 33 German and 10 Cuban unrelated Wilson disease (WND) index patients and their relatives. The common His1069Gln mutation accounted for 42% of all WND chromosomes in the German series and the haplotype C was found to be highly predictive for this mutation. Six WND gene mutations have not been described previously and involved a splice site at intron 18 (3903 + del1G), a termination codon in the copper-binding region of exon 2 (Cys271X), and missense mutations in transmembrane region 2 (Gly710Ala), in transmembrane region 3 (Tyr741Cys), in the DKTGT motif (Thr1031Ile) and in the ATP loop region (Gly1176Arg). In 15 German WND index patients and three sibs both WND mutations could be determined and a genotype-phenotype correlation was attempted. Patients homozygous for the His1069Gln mutation showed almost the complete range of clinical presentations, and thus in our study this mutation is not associated with a late, neurological presentation.