CD40-tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) interactions: regulation of CD40 signaling through multiple TRAF binding sites and TRAF hetero-oligomerization.
CD40 is a TNF receptor superfamily member that provides activation signals in antigen-presenting cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Multimerization of CD40 by its ligand initiates signaling by recruiting TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to the CD40 cytoplasmic domain. Recombinant human TRAF proteins overexpressed in insect cells were biochemically characterized and used to finely map TRAF binding regions in the human CD40 cytoplasmic domain. TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, and TRAF6, but not TRAF4 or TRAF5, bound directly to the CD40 cytoplasmic domain. CD40 interactions with TRAF2 and TRAF3 were stronger than the interactions with TRAF1 and TRAF6. Full-length TRAF3 and TRAF5 formed hetero-oligomers, presumably through their predicted isoleucine zippers. TRAF3-TRAF5 hetero-oligomers interacted with CD40, indicating that TRAF5 can be indirectly recruited to the CD40 cytoplasmic domain. Overlapping peptides synthesized on cellulose membranes were used to map each TRAF interaction region. TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 interacted with the same region. The recognition site for TRAF6 was a nonoverlapping membrane proximal region. Using peptides with progressive deletions, a minimal TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 binding region was mapped to the PVQET sequence in the CD40 cytoplasmic domain. The minimal region for TRAF6 binding was the sequence QEPQEINF. These studies demonstrate that the CD40 cytoplasmic domain contains two nonoverlapping TRAF binding regions and suggest that TRAF1, TRAF2, and TRAF3 could bind competitively to one site. Relative affinities and competition of individual and hetero-oligomeric TRAF proteins for CD40 binding sites may contribute to receptor specificity and cell-type selectivity in CD40-dependent signaling.