Familial hyperproinsulinaemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in proinsulin: identification of the mutation by restriction enzyme mapping.
Familial hyperproinsulinaemia is a rare genetic disorder characterized by point mutations in the insulin gene which impair the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. We report here three members of a two-generation Caucasian family in whom this syndrome was identified by unexplained hyperinsulinism associated with normal glucose tolerance and normal insulin sensitivity. Plasma insulin immunoreactivity showed a reduced affinity for the insulin receptor and eluted mainly, on Biogel chromatography, at the position of proinsulin. Analysis of the PCR-amplified insulin gene by restriction enzyme mapping revealed a new recognition site for the enzyme Nla III, indicating a Arg65 to His mutation. Sequence analysis of exon 3 confirmed this mutation in one allele of the gene. CONCLUSION: This study reports a two-generation European-Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinaemia due to a substitution of His for Arg at position 65 in proinsulin, the seventh now identified worldwide and the second from Europe. The mutation generated a new restriction site on the insulin gene suggesting the usefulness of restriction enzyme mapping as a screening procedure.