Integrin alpha v beta 6 enhances coxsackievirus B1 lytic infection of human colon cancer cells.
Viral entry into host cells depends upon specific interactions between virus attachment proteins and cell surface receptors that enable virus binding and internalization of virus and/or the virus-receptor complex. We have recently reported that the ubiquitous cell surface molecule, decay-accelerating factor (DAF), is a major cell attachment receptor for Coxsackieviruses B1, B3, and B5. However, DAF permits only virus binding and not virus internalization, invoking the presence of secondary or accessory receptors. Among the known receptors for enteroviruses are members of the cell adhesion molecule family known as integrins. In the present study, we found that expression of the epithelial-restricted integrin, alpha v beta 6, on colonic epithelial cells significantly enhanced Coxsackievirus B1-mediated cell lysis. Importantly, the viral-mediated cell killing required the presence of the 11-amino-acid C-terminal cytoplasmic extension unique to the beta 6 subunit, providing the first evidence of regulation of viral infectivity by integrin cytoplasmic domains. These results indicate that alpha v beta 6 expression on intestinal epithelial cells critically affects Coxsackievirus B1 infectivity. This may be essential in the conversion of asymptomatic enterovirus infection into clinically apparent disease.