Identification and molecular cloning of two novel receptors for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL.
A human receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL (TRAIL receptor-1, designated DR4) was identified recently as a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. In this report we describe the identification of two additional human TRAIL receptors, TRAIL receptor-2 and TRAIL receptor-3, that belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Interestingly, TRAIL receptor-2 but not TRAIL receptor-3 contains a cytoplasmic "death domain" necessary for induction of apoptosis and is hence designated death receptor-5 (DR5). Like DR4, DR5 engages the apoptotic pathway independent of the adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1. Because of its lack of a death domain, TRAIL receptor-3 is not capable of inducing apoptosis. However, by competing for TRAIL, it is capable of inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, TRAIL receptor-3 may function as an antagonistic decoy receptor to attenuate the cytotoxic effect of TRAIL in most tissues that are TRAIL+, DR4+, and DR5+.