The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.
Tomb J.-F., White O., Kerlavage A.R., Clayton R.A., Sutton G.G., Fleischmann R.D., Ketchum K.A., Klenk H.-P., Gill S.R., Dougherty B.A., Nelson K.E., Quackenbush J., Zhou L., Kirkness E.F., Peterson S.N., Loftus B.J., Richardson D.L., Dodson R.J., Khalak H.G., Glodek A., McKenney K., FitzGerald L.M., Lee N., Adams M.D., Hickey E.K., Berg D.E., Gocayne J.D., Utterback T.R., Peterson J.D., Kelley J.M., Cotton M.D., Weidman J.F., Fujii C., Bowman C., Watthey L., Wallin E., Hayes W.S., Borodovsky M., Karp P.D., Smith H.O., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C.
Helicobacter pylori, strain 26695, has a circular genome of 1,667,867 base pairs and 1,590 predicted coding sequences. Sequence analysis indicates that H. pylori has well-developed systems for motility, for scavenging iron, and for DNA restriction and modification. Many putative adhesins, lipoproteins and other outer membrane proteins were identified, underscoring the potential complexity of host-pathogen interaction. Based on the large number of sequence-related genes encoding outer membrane proteins and the presence of homopolymeric tracts and dinucleotide repeats in coding sequences, H. pylori, like several other mucosal pathogens, probably uses recombination and slipped-strand mispairing within repeats as mechanisms for antigenic variation and adaptive evolution. Consistent with its restricted niche, H. pylori has a few regulatory networks, and a limited metabolic repertoire and biosynthetic capacity. Its survival in acid conditions depends, in part, on its ability to establish a positive inside-membrane potential in low pH.